Semen Plantaginis(Plantain Seed).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.

 TCM Herbs Icon09 Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 09 Introduction: The Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [27] kinds of common TCM herbs, [32] kinds of related plant species, [2] kinds of related fungus species, [2] kinds of related insect species, [1] kind of related mineral are recorded in this category. These Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics are briefly introduced separately:

 
Semen Plantaginis(Plantain Seed).

 Semen Plantaginis Brief Introduction: The herb Semen Plantaginis is the dried ripe seed of Plantago asiatica L. or Plantago depressa Willd.(family Plantaginaceae), used (1).to induce diuresis and filter out damp for treating watery diarrhea, edema and stranguria, (2).to clear the liver and improve vision in cases of eye diseases, and (3).to clear the lung and resolve phlegm for cases of cough with profuse phlegm. The herb is commonly known as Semen Plantaginis, Plantain Seed, Chē Qián Zǐ.

 ✵Official herbal classics defined the herb Semen Plantaginis(Plantain Seed) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Plantago asiatica L., or (2). Plantago depressa Willd., other famous herbal classics defined the herb Semen Plantaginis(Plantain Seed) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Plantago asiatica L., or (2). Plantago depressa Willd., or (3). Plantago major L. They are plants of the Plantago genus, the Plantaginaceae(plantain family) family, the Lamiales order. These commonly used species are introduced as:

 Plantago asiatica L (1).Plantago asiatica L.: The Plantago asiatica L, is a plant of Plantaginaceae(plantain family) family and Plantago genus, it is commonly known as "Che Qian", perennial herbaceous plants, and even the stems can be as high as 50 cm. With fibrous roots; with long stems, as long as a blade or as long as leaf blade, base enlarged; leaf blade ovate or elliptic, 4~12 cm long, 2~7 cm wide, apex obtuse or obtuse, base narrowed growth stem, entire or in Irregular wavy shallow teeth, usually 5-7 arc veins. Flowers several stems, 12~50 cm high, angular, sparsely hairy, spikes to flower stems 2/5-1/2; flowers pale green flowers with 1 persistent bracts, triangular; 4 calyxes, base slightly Corolla small, membranous, corolla tube ovate, apex 4 lobes triangular, outward rewinding; 4 stamens, grow in the corolla tube near the base, and corolla lobes alternate, anthers oblong, apex with triangular protrusions, filaments linear; 1 pistil; ovary superior, ovoid, 2-locular (fake 4-locular), 1 style, linear-hairy. Capsule ovate-conic, after maturing around 2/5 peripherally cleft, below 2/5 persistent. 4~8 or 9 seeds, nearly oval, dark brown. Its flowering period is from June to September, fruiting in October.

 Plantago asiatica L Growth habit: The plantain grass has strong adaptability, cold and drought tolerance, and has strict requirements on the soil. It can grow well in warm, humid, sunny, and sandy loam soils. The stems and leaves can normally grow in the temperature range of 20~24 °C, and the temperature exceeds 32 °C. There will be slow growth, withered until the whole plant dies, and the soil is slightly sandy soil alluvial loam.

 Ecological environment: It grows in the grassland, ditch, riverbank wetland, roadside or village edge, at altitude 3~3,200 meters above the sea level. The plant is produced in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Zhujiang river area, northwest area, southwest area, Hainan and Taiwan of China. It is also distributed in Nepal, Malaysia, far east, other regions of East Asia.

 Trait identification: Seeds slightly elliptic or irregularly oblong, slightly flattened, ca. 2 mm long, ca. 1 mm wide. Surface is light brown or brown, slightly rough. Fine longitudinal striations can be seen under the enlarged mirror, with a yellowish indentation in the middle of the slightly flattened plane. It is hard and has a pale cutting surface. Seeds into the water, the skin has mucous release. Light smell, chewing with mucilage. The granule is big, uniform and full, the seed with brown-red color is better.

 Plantago depressa Willd. (2).Plantago depressa Willd.: The Plantago depressa Willd., is a plant of Plantaginaceae(plantain family) family and Plantago genus, it is commonly known as "Ping Che Qian". Annual or biennial herb. Straight roots, with most lateral roots, much fleshy. Short rhizomes. The plantago depressa willd is in the shape of a rosette, lying supine, obliquely or erectly; leaf blade papery, elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3~12 cm long, 1~3.5 cm wide, apex acute or slightly obtuse, With wavy blunt teeth, irregular serrations or teeth, base broadly cuneate to narrowly cuneate, base spreading to petiole, 5~7 veins, slightly concave above, abruptly raised on abaxial surface, sparsely white pubescent on both surfaces; petiole length 2~6 cm, the base expands into a sheath.

 Plantago depressa Willd. Inflorescences more than 3~10; peduncles 5~18 cm long, with vertical stripes, sparsely white pubescent; spikes terete-cylindrical, densely dense, base often interrupted, long 6~12 cm; sepals triangular-ovate, 2~3.5 mm long, concave, hairless, keel width, and width, wider than the two sides of the sheet, do not extend to or extend to the top. Calyx 2~2.5 mm long, glabrous, keels extended broadly, do not extend to the top, frontal bracts narrowly obovate-elliptic to broadly elliptic, posterior to bracts obovate-elliptic to broadly elliptic. Corolla white, glabrous, crown equal or slightly longer than sepals, lobes tiny, elliptic or ovate, 0.5~1 mm long, reflexed after flowering. Stamens on the inner surface of the crown tube near the apical surface, with style prominently exserted, anthers ovate-elliptic or broadly elliptic, 0.6~1.1 mm long, apex with broad triangular-like small processes, fresh white or greenish white, dry after transformation Light brown. Ovule 5.

 Capsule ovate-ovate to conical-ovate, 4~5 mm in length, cleft above base. 4~5 seeds, elliptic, ventral surface flat, 1.2~1.8 mm long, yellow-brown to black; cotyledon dorsal-ventral arrangement. Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting from July to September.

 Ecological environment: It grows in grassland, riverbank, ditch edge, meadow, field and roadside, elevation 5~4,500 meters. It is produced in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Zhujiang river area, northwest area, southwest area of China. It is also distributed in Siberia to the far east, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir.

 Trait identification: Seeds oblong, slightly oblate, 0.90~1.75 mm long, 0.60~0.98 mm wide. Surface black laurel or brown, slightly raised on the back, the ventral surface is relatively flat, there is a significant white concave point in the center of the umbilicus. The granule is big, uniform and full, the seed with brown-red color is better.

 Plantago major L. (3).Plantago major L.: It is commonly known as Dà Chē Qián. Herbs biennial or perennial. Fibrous root majority. The rhizome is short and stout. Leaves basal rosette, prostrate, oblique or erect; Leaf blade grassy, thin papery or papery, broadly ovate to broadly elliptic, 3~18~30 cm long, 2~11~21 cm wide, apex obtuse or acute, margin undulate, sparsely irregular teeth or nearly entire, both surfaces sparsely pubescent or nearly glabrous, few densely pubescent, 3~5~7 veins; Petiole long 1~3~10~26 cm, base sheathed, often hairy.

 Plantago major L. Inflorescence 1 to several; Inflorescences erect or arched, long 2~5~18 cm, longitudinally striated, pubescent or pilose; Inflorescences thin terete, 1~3~20 cm, base often discontinuous; Bracts broadly ovate-triangular, 1.2~2 mm long, broadly equal to or slightly more than long, glabrous or apex sparsely shortly hairy, keel process broad and thick. Flowers without terrier; Calyx 1.5~2.5 mm long, sepals apex rounded, glabrous or sparsely shortly hairy, margin membranous, keel process apical, anterior to sepals elliptic to broadly elliptic, posterior to sepals broadly elliptic to subcircular. Corolla white, glabrous, coronal tube equal or slightly longer than sepals, lobes lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 1~1.5 mm long, reflexed after flowers. Stamens inserted near the base of the inner surface of the coronal tube, with style conspicuously exserted, anthers elliptic, 1~1.2 mm long, usually purplish at first, pale white, pale brown when dry. Ovules 12 to 40.

 Capsule subglobose, ovoid or broadly ellipsoid, 2-3 mm long, circumferentially lobed in the middle or slightly lower. Seeds 8~34, ovate, elliptic or rhomboid, 0.8~1.2 mm long, angular, ventral raised or nearly flat, yellowish-brown; Cotyledons arranged dorsoventrally. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Plantago major L. Ecological environment: It grows in grassland, meadow, riverbank, ditch, swamp, hillside roadside, field edge or wasteland, elevation of 5~2,800 meters. The plant is distributed in the temperate zone and cold temperate zone of the Asia-Europe continent, in the world around the naturalization. The herb is produced in northwest, north, southwest area, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Hainan, Taiwan of China.

 Trait identification: Seeds triangular or oblique square, small, 0.88~1.60 mm long, 0.55~0.90 mm wide. The surface is brown or tan, ventral eminence is higher, umbilicus point is white, be located in ventral eminence more central or one end. The granule is big, uniform and full, the seed with brown-red color is better.

 
 

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