Introduction of Chi Xiao Dou:Rice Bean or Semen Phaseoli.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.

 TCM Herbs Icon09 Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 09 Introduction: The Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [27] kinds of common TCM herbs, [32] kinds of related plant species, [2] kinds of related fungus species, [2] kinds of related insect species, [1] kind of related mineral are recorded in this category. These Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics are briefly introduced separately:

 
Semen Phaseoli(Rice Bean).

Semen Phaseoli Pin Yin Name: Chì Xiǎo Dòu.
 English Name: Rice Bean.
 Latin Name: Semen Phaseoli.
 Property and flavor: slight cool, sour, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Semen Phaseoli is the dried ripe seed of Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.Or Phaseolus angularis Wight(family Leguminosae), used to induce diuresis, counteract toxins and promote the drainage of pus in cases of boils, sores and abscesses. The herb is commonly known as Semen Phaseoli, Rice Bean, Chì Xiǎo Dòu.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Semen Phaseoli(Rice Bean) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., or (2). Phaseolus angularis Wight. They are plants of the Vigna genus, the Fabaceae family of the Fabales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb. (1).Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.:
 Botanical description: The Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., is a plant of the Fabaceae family and Vigna genus, it is commonly known as "Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb", "Rice Bean", "Small Red Bean", "Chi Xiao Dou", Annual herb. Stalks are slender, as long as 1 meter or more, yellow villous when young, hairless when old. Pinnate compound with 3 leaflets; stipules peltate, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 10~15 mm long, acuminate at both ends; stipules subulate, leaflets papery, ovate or velvety Needle-shaped, 10~13 cm long, broad 2~5~7.5 cm, apex acute, base broadly cuneate or obtuse, entire or slightly 3-lobed, sparsely hairy on both surfaces, basally veined 3 articles. Racemes axillary, short, with 2~3 flowers; bracts lanceolate; pedicels short, glands adnate; flowers yellow, ca. 1.8 cm, width 1.2 cm; keelbone right angle shaped appendages. Capsule linear-cylindrical, pendulous, 6~10 cm long, 5 mm wide, glabrous, 6~10 seeds, oblong, usually dark red, sometimes brown, black or yellow, 3~3.5 mm in diameter, umbilical depression. Its flowering period is from May to August.

 One-year climbing herb. Stem length up to 1.8 meters, densely inverted hair. Stipules lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; 3 leaflets, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 6~10 cm long, 2~6 cm wide, entire or 3 Shallow cracks, no hair on both sides, only sparse hairs on veins, paper, veins 3 out.

 Racemes axillary, flowers numerous, pedicel very short; 2 sorghum, lanceolate, hairy; calyx short bell, 5 carious; corolla butterfly, yellow, flag reniform, top central dimples, base cordate, winged-ovate-oblique, basally with narrowed claws, keelbone narrow, horny; 10 stamens, both body, anthers small; ovary superior, densely hirsute, style linear.

 Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb. Capsules linear-cylindrical; seeds 6~10, dry seeds slightly cylindrical and slightly flat, 5~7 mm long, 3 mm in diameter, testa russet or purple-brown, slightly glossy, umbilicus linear, white, about 2/3 of the full length, the middle depression into a longitudinal groove, biased to one end, the back of a not obvious ridge. Hard, remove the seed coat, visible two white milk in the kernel. Chewing bean flavor. It is better to dry, full of particles and dark red. Its flowering period is from May to August, fruiting period is from August to September.

 Growth habit:The Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., has strong adaptability. The requirement for soil is not strict, resistance to slim, clay, sand can be cultivated, also on road in valley and basin, mountain. It is not only tolerant to watering, but also tolerant to drought, early to plant and ripe early, short growth period, simple cultivation techniques, and can be used as a replanting crop.

 Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated or grows in the wild. The plant distributes in the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, and the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River. It is widely cultivated all over the south. The plant was native to tropical Asia, it is planted in Southeast Asian countries, also cultivated in other areas of East Asia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Phaseolus calcaratus is strong in adaptability, it can be planted in general farmland. The sunny, loose soil, medium fertility (fertilizer easy to grow, less pod) is good, unfavorable continuous cropping.

 Characters of herbs: Seeds cylindrical and slightly flat, slightly truncated or obtuse at both ends, 5~7 mm long, 3~5 mm in diameter. Surface purplish-red or dark reddish-brown. Smooth, slightly shiny or dull; Seed umbilicus with linear projections on one side, inclined to one end, white, about 2/3 the length of the seed, central depression into a longitudinal groove; There is an obscure ridge on the other side. Hard, not broken; Seed coat thin and brittle, 2 cotyledons, milky white, hypertrophy, radicle slender, curved to one end. Smells emblem, taste slightly sweet, chewing the smell of beans. The herb with grain full, color purple hair dark is better.

 Pharmacological actions: The decoction of the herb Semen Phaseoli has an inhibitory effect on staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, and Bacillus typhi. The protease inhibitor can inhibit the activity of trypsin and human sperm acrosomal enzymes.

 Medicinal efficacy: Alleviate water retention and detumescence(reduce swelling), alleviate water retention and eliminate dampness, removing jaundice, detoxification and apocenosis, harmonize the blood and apocenosis, reduce swelling and detoxification, clear heat and detoxification, eliminate carbuncle. It is indicated for swelling of edema, beriberi and limb swelling, jaundice, jaundice and red urine, diarrhea and dysentery, hemafecia(bloody stool), gonorrhea, wind-damp pyretic arthralgia, carbuncle sore poison, acute appendicitis and abdominal pain, scall and tinea.

 Administration of Semen Phaseoli(Chì Xiǎo Dòu): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Semen Phaseoli(Chì Xiǎo Dòu)
TCM Books: Internally:9~30 grams.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder and apply stick(CP),Internally:water decoction, 0.3~1 liang(about 9~30 grams), or prepare to powder.Externally:grinded into fine powder and apply stick(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams, or prepared to powder.Externally:proper amount,grinded raw herb to fine powder and apply stick,or wash with water decoction(CHMM).


 Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb. (2).Phaseolus angularis Wight.:
 Botanical description: The Phaseolus angularis Wight., is a plant of the Fabaceae family and Vigna genus, it is commonly known as "Phaseolus angularis", "Rice Bean", "Red Bean", "Chi Dou", annual, erect or entangled with herbs. 30~90 cm tall, plants are sparsely hairy. Pinnate compound with 3 leaflets; stipules peltate, arrow-shaped, 0.9~1.7 cm long; leaflets ovate to ovate-ovate, 5~10 cm long, 5~8 cm wide, apex broadly triangular or near rounded, laterally skewed, entire or shallowly trifid, slightly sparsely hairy on both sides.

 Flowers yellow, ca. 5 or 6-flowered on short pedicel apex; pedicel extremely short; bracteoles lanceolate, 6-8 mm long; calyx campanulate, 3~4 mm long; corolla ca. 9 mm long, flag Petal oblong or subrenal, often slightly oblique, apical concave, wing valve wider than the keel, with a short petiole and ear, the top of the keel is bent nearly half a circle, one of the middle and lower parts has a convex horn, the base Petiole stalks; ovary linear, style curved, hairy near apex.

 Capsule terete, 5~8 cm long, 5~6 mm wide, spreading or curved, glabrous; seeds usually dark red or other colors, oblong, 5~6 mm long, 4~5 mm wide, both ends cut flat or nearly round, no umbilical sag. Its flowering period is in summer, fruiting from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated or grows in the wild. The plant is widely cultivated throughout north and south of China. It is also introduced to the America continent and Africa.

 Characters of herbs: seed near moment round and slightly flat, 4~6 mm in diameter, and red bean the main difference is flat and not raised umbilicus, the center is not concave. The herb with full grain, color purple hair dark is better.

 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Chi Xiao Dou:Rice Bean or Semen Phaseoli.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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