Introduction of Fu Ling:Poria Cocos or Poria.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.

 TCM Herbs Icon09 Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 09 Introduction: The Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [27] kinds of common TCM herbs, [32] kinds of related plant species, [2] kinds of related fungus species, [2] kinds of related insect species, [1] kind of related mineral are recorded in this category. These Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics are briefly introduced separately:

 
Poria(Poria Cocos).

Poria Cocos Pin Yin Name: Fú Línɡ.
 English Name: Poria Cocos.
 Latin Name: Poria.
 Property and flavor: neutral,sweet,tasteless.

 Brief introduction: The herb Poria is the dried sclerotium of the fungus Poria cocos(Schw.) Wolf(family Polyporaceae), used (1).as a diuretic in cases of edema and oliguria,(2).to invigorate the spleen for treating anorexia and diarrhea, and (3).to induce tranquilization in cases of palpitation and insomnia. The herb is commonly known as Poria, Poria Cocos, Fú Línɡ.

 Botanical source: Common famous herbal classics and official herbal classics defined the herb Poria(Poria Cocos) as the dried sclerotium of the species (1). Poria cocos(Schw.) Wolf, it is a fungus of the Wolfiporia genus, the Fomitopsidaceae family, the Polyporales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Poria cocos Schw Wolf.01 (1).Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf.:
 Botanical description: The Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf., is a fungus of the Polyporaceae family and Wolfiporia genus, it is also known as "Wolfiporia extensa", "Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns (syn. Poria cocos F.A.Wolf)", the fungus is also known as "hoelen, poria, tuckahoe, China root, fu ling.", and classified into Fomitopsidaceae family in some latest classification system. Sclerotia spherical, oval to an irregular shape, length is 10~30 cm or longer, the weight is not the same, usually weighing 500~5,000 grams. Thick and wrinkled skin outside, dark brown, hardened when fresh, soft and dry, white or light pink inside, powdery and granular. Entomophores grow in the surface of the sclerotia, all flat, thickness 3~8 cm, white, fleshy, aged or dried into a light brown. Trichoderma long 2~3 mm thin tube wall, nozzle round, polygonal or irregular shape, diameter 0.5~1.5 cm, split lip toothed. Spore rectangular to nearly cylindrical, smooth, with a crooked tip, size (7.5~9) μm × (3~3.5) μm.

 Poria cocos Schw Wolf.02 The Poria showed three different morphological characteristics at different stages of development, namely mycelium, sclerotia and fruiting bodies.

 (1).Mycelium, including mononuclear and dual-core two mycelia. Monomer nuclear mycelium, also known as primary mycelium, is made by the Poria spores germination, only in the early germination. Binuclear mycelium, also known as secondary mycelium, is the main form of mycelium, by two different sex mononuclear mycelia meet, by the quality of the formation. Mycelium was white fluffy appearance, with a unique multi-concentric ring-shaped colony. Observed under a microscope, we can see mycelium by a number of branched mycelia, hyphae by the diaphragm is divided into linear cells, the width of 2-5 microns, the top common to the lock-like joint phenomenon.

 Poria cocos Schw Wolf.03 (2).Sclerotia, by numerous hyphae and nutrients, gathered from the dormant body. Also known as "Tuckahoe or fu-ling". Spherical, ellipsoid, oblate or irregular lumps; small two, the largest number of pounds, tens of pounds; fresh matter soft quality, easy to open, hard to break open after the hard. Sclerotium outer shell-like, rough surface, with tumor-like shrinkage, fresh light brown or tan, dry to dark brown; skin white and light brown. Observed under a microscope, the mycelium in the white part of the mycelium was mostly lotus-like joints or extruded mass. Near the skin at the more slender and arranged dense light brown hyphae.

 Poria cocos Schw Wolf.03 (3). Fruiting bodies, usually produce on the surface of sclerotia, occasionally in the older mycelium. Honeycomb, different sizes, sessile supine, about 0.3~1 cm thick. At first white, the old woody into light yellow. The stratum is born on the surface of the inner wall of the tube and consists of numerous heavy loads. Mature burdens each produce 4 spores (ie basidiospores). Poria spores gray-white, oblong or nearly cylindrical, a crooked tip, 6×2.5 ~ 11×3.5 microns.

 Ecological environment: The Poria cocos is parasitic on the pine family of plants such as red pine or Masson pine roots, 20 to 30 cm underground. The herb distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, north and northwest area, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The poria cocos is a facultative parasitic fungus, it grows wild in the rhizosphere of Pinus massoniana, Pinus yellow-mountain, Pinus red, Pinus yunnanensis, Pinus lodgepole, and other tree species, on dry and sunny slopes in mountainous areas of 600~1000 meters altitude. 10°-35° mountain slope and sandy soil are more suitable for its growth. It is favorable for growth in the condition of a large temperature difference between day and night.

 Characters of herbs: Spherical, oblate or irregular block, size, weight from 1 kg to more than 5 kgs. The surface is dark brown or brown, the outer skin is thin and coarse, with obvious raised wrinkles, often with soil. Weight, hard, not easily broken; Cross-section is not flat, show grain shape or powdery, the outer layer is light brown or pink, inside layer is all white, a few are a light brown, exquisite, and visible fissure or brown pine root and white fuzziness piece Mosaic is in the middle. No smell, chewing sticky teeth. With weight solid, outer skin shows brown and take burnish slightly, furrow is deep, section white is exquisite, stick tooth force strong person is beautiful. White tuckahoe all already cut thin slice or square, color white is exquisite and have pink slippery feeling. Crisp, easily broken, sometimes yellowish-brown edges.

 Pharmacological actions: The decoction of poria cocos has sedative, anti-ulcer, prevent liver cell necrosis, protect the liver, increase myocardial potassium content, reduce kanamycin toxicity in ear damage, has an anti-tumor effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing damp and promoting diuresis, benefits the spleen and harmonizes the stomach, nourishes the spleen and calm the heart, calm the heart and tranquility. It is indicated for edema and oliguria, dysuria(difficulty in micturition), edema and distention fullness, phlegm and fluid retention, dizziness and palpitation, phlegm and fluid retention with cough, spleen deficiency and poor appetite, loose stool and diarrhea, vomiting, retching, diarrhea, spermatorrhea(nocturnal emission), stranguria with turbid discharge, restlessness, uneasy and palpitation, palpitate with fear and insomnia, amnesia(forgettery), white turbid and spermatorrhea.

 Administration of Poria(Fú Línɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Poria(Fú Línɡ)
TCM Books: Internally:9~15 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction,3~5 qian(about 4.5~15 grams), or prepare to pill,powder(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams,or prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).


 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Fu Ling:Poria Cocos or Poria.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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