Polyporus(Chuling,Umbellate Polypore).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.

 TCM Herbs Icon09 Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 09 Introduction: The Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [27] kinds of common TCM herbs, [32] kinds of related plant species, [2] kinds of related fungus species, [2] kinds of related insect species, [1] kind of related mineral are recorded in this category. These Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics are briefly introduced separately:

Polyporus(Chuling,Umbellate Polypore).

 Polyporus Brief Introduction: The herb Polyporus is the dried sclerotium of the fungus Polyporus umbellatus(Pers.) Fries(family Polyporaceae), used as a diuretic for edema and oliguria, and also to filter out damp for treating leukorrhagia. This herb is commonly known as Polyporus, Chuling, Umbellate Polypore, Agaric, Zhū Línɡ.

 ✵Common famous herbal classics and official herbal classics defined the herb Polyporus(Chuling, Umbellate Polypore) as the sclerotium of the species (1).Polyporus umbellatus(Pers)Fr., it is a fungus of the Polyporus genus, the Polyporaceae family, the Polyporales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Polyporus umbellatus Pers Fr. (1).Polyporus umbellatus(Pers)Fr.:  It is commonly known as Grifola umbellatus(Pers.) Pilat, or Zhū Líng. The sclellate is irregular, showing clumps of different sizes, solid, purplish-black on the surface, with most uneven wrinkles, and white on the inside. The size is generally 3~5 cm × 3~20 cm. The fruiting body arises from the buried scleral, has a stalk and branches many times, forming a plexus cover, with a total diameter up to 20 cm. Fungicidal cap round, 1~4 cm in diameter, midumbilical, with yellowish fibrous scales, nearly white to light brown, unringed, margin thin and sharp, often curly, fleshy, hard and crisp when dry. Mushroom flesh thin, white. The tubule is about 2 mm long, the same color as the flesh, and extends downward. Tube orifice round to polygon, each 1 mm between 3~4. Spores colorless, smooth, cylindrical, round at one end, tipped at the other, (7~10) muon ×(3~4.2) muon.

 The life cycle of Polyporus is divided into four stages: spore, mycelium, sclerotia, and fruiting body. Basidiospore is a sexual spore produced by the fruiting body (long ovoid oval, pointed at one end, colorless, smooth, 7~10×3~4 mm), forming primary mycelium after germination, primary mycelium body with secondary mycelium produced dinucleate mycelium, many secondary mycelium closely entangles into the mycelium. Sclerotium mainly stores nutrients and is resistant to high, low temperature and drought. Under inappropriate conditions, it can remain dormant for a long time and can germinate and produce new mycelia in any part of mycelium under appropriate temperature, humidity and nutrient conditions. Generally, in late March, 5 cm of the surface layer temperature reached 8-9℃, the scleral began to grow, the germination of many white spots on the scleral body, with the rise in temperature, the wool spots grow and thicken, forming a plump shiny white scleral, gradually to the surface growth. In August and September, when the ground temperature reached 12~20 ℃, the growth of the bacterial nucleus entered the flourishing period, and the volume and weight increased rapidly. The color of sclerotia changes from white to yellow from base to the middle. At this time, such as continuous rainy days, air humidity increased, part of the growth of the fruiting body, open spore. As the ground temperature drops, the fruiting bodies quickly wither and rot. After October, when the temperature drops to 8~9 ℃, the fungus stops growing and goes into hibernation. The next spring new sclerotia germinated. In this way, the group gathers and forms a nest. The soil is fertile, the nutrition is rich, the sclerotia is big and many, the bifurcation is little, the common name "the porcine excrement ling"; Soil barren, insufficient nutrition, knot part small, bifurcation, commonly known as "chicken excrement ling." When the external environmental conditions are extremely adverse, the callus will stop growing, the sclerotia will age, the color will become dark, the nuclear body will appear size holes, until decay. The relationship between Polyporus and armillaria mellea is a nutritional relationship between parasitism and anti-parasitism, which can also be regarded as a symbiotic relationship.

 Polyporus umbellatus Pers Fr. Ecological environment: It grows on the ground near the roots of forest or near saprophytes. Resources distribution: The plant is distributed in Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan of China.

 Cultivation biological characteristics: It is wild in secondary forests of mountain areas with 1,000~2,000 meters. In the rainy south area it grows more in the sunny slope, in the north it grows more in the Yin slope or half sunny slope. The sclerotia began to germinate at ground temperature of 8~9 ℃. At the average monthly ground temperature of 14~20 ℃, the new fungus grew faster and germinated more. Fruiting bodies were formed at 22~25 ℃. It is suitable to grow in loose and breathable sandy loam with high humus content and rich acid content. It lives in symbiosis with Armillaria mellea, so its associated plants are related to Armillaria mellea saprophyte and parasitic tree species, often lives together with other tree species such as tussah, birch, maple, oak, elm, willow, maple and fructus ligustri.

 Trait identification: Scleral nuclei are irregular massive, striate, nearly round or flat, some branched, 5~25 cm long, 2~6 cm in diameter. Its surface is black, gray or brown-black, wrinkled or tumor-likeke protuberant. Body light, hard, cross-section like white or yellow-white, slightly granular. Slight smell, mild taste. The herb with a big, skin black, broken surface is white, is better.


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