Fructus Liquidambaris(Beautiful Sweetgum Fruit).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.

 TCM Herbs Icon09 Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 09 Introduction: The Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [27] kinds of common TCM herbs, [32] kinds of related plant species, [2] kinds of related fungus species, [2] kinds of related insect species, [1] kind of related mineral are recorded in this category. These Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics are briefly introduced separately:

Fructus Liquidambaris(Beautiful Sweetgum Fruit).

 Fructus Liquidambaris Brief Introduction: The herb Fructus Liquidambaris is the dried strobile(cone) of Liquidambar formosana Hance(family Hamanelidaceae), used (1).to induce diuresis for treating edema, (2).to dispel wind-damp in cases of arthralgia, and (3).to promote menstrual discharge in cases of amenorrhea. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Liquidambaris, Beartiful Sweetgum Fruit, Taiwan Sweetgum, Lù Lù Tōnɡ.

 ✵Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Liquidambaris(Beautiful Sweetgum Fruit) as the dried strobile(cone) of the species (1). Liquidambar formosana Hance. It is a plant of the Liquidambar L. genus, the Hamamelidaceae family of the Rosales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Liquidambar formosana Hance. (1).Liquidambar formosana Hance.:  It is commonly known as Liquidambar formosana, or Fēng Xiāng Shù. Deciduous trees, up to 30 m, DBH is up to 1 meter, bark grayish-brown, squared-off; Small branches gray, pilose, slightly lenticellate; Bud ovoid, about 1 cm long, slightly hairy, scaly bracts coated with resin, brown-black after drying, shiny. Leaves thinly leathery, broadly ovate, palmately 3-lobed, central lobes longer, apex caudate acuminate; Lobes spreading on both sides; Base cordate; Green above, dry gray-green, not shiny; Pubescent below, or becoming bald and hairy only in vein axils; 3~5 palmate veins, prominent on upper and lower surfaces, web veins visible; Margin serrate, tooth tip has glandular process; Petiole 11 cm long, often pubescent; Stipules linear, free, or slightly connate with petiole, 1~1.4 cm long, reddish-brown, hairy, caducous.

 Liquidambar formosana Hance. Male short spikes often arranged in racemes, most stamens, filaments unequal length, anthers slightly shorter than filaments. Female head with 24~43 flowers, peduncle 3~6 cm long, occasionally lenticellate, glandular; 4~7 calyx teeth, needle-shaped, 4~8 mm long, ovary lower half concealed in rachis capitulate, upper half dissociated, pilose, style 6~10 mm long, apex often curly.

 Fruiting capitate globose, woody, 3~4 cm in diameter; Capsule lower half concealed in inflorescence axis, with persistent style and needle-like calyx teeth. Seeds are numerous, brown, polygonal or narrow winged.

 Liquidambar formosana Hance. Ecological environment: It grows in mountain evergreen broad-leaved forest. The plant is distributed in Qinling mountains and the provinces south of the Huai River, starting from Henan in the north, reaching Taiwan in the east, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Xizang in the west, and Guangdong in the south. It is also found in Laos.

 Liquidambar formosana Hance. Trait identification:Fruiting globose, 2~3 cm in diameter. The surface is grayish brown to tan, with most spiny calyx teeth and beak style, often broken or bent, after removal, most honeycomb holes; Base with cylindrical fruit stalk, 3~4.5 cm long, often broken or only with fruit stalk marks. Small capsule apically dehiscent to form a cavity, the seed is the visible majority, development is not complete small, polygonal, the diameter is about 1 mm, yellow-brown is subtan, development is complete few, flat oblong, have a wing, brown. It is light, hard and not easy to break. Slightly smell and sweet, taste light. The herb in big size, yellow, no mud, no fruit handle is better.


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