Introduction of Hua Jiao:Prickly-ash Peel or Pericarpium Zanthoxyli.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon06 Introduction: Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs: also known as interior-warming herbs, an agent or substance herbs that warms the interior and expels internal cold, also known as cold-expelling herbs.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 07 Introduction: The Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs are known including:, , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [11] kinds of common TCM herbs, [16] kinds of related plant species are recorded in this category. These Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs are briefly introduced separately:

 
Pericarpium Zanthoxyli(Prickly-ash Peel).

Prickly-ash Peel Pin Yin Name: Huā Jiāo.
 English Name: Prickly-ash Peel, Bunge Pricklyash Peel.
 Latin Name: Pericarpium Zanthoxyli.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, mild toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Pericarpium Zanthoxyli is the dried ripe pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb.et Zucc., or Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.(family Rutaceae), used (1).to warm the stomach for the treatment of gastralgia and dyspepsia due to cold, (2).as an ascaricide, and (3).externally for treating eczema and pruritus. The herb is commonly known as Pericarpium Zanthoxyli, Prickly-ash Peel, Huā Jiāo.

 Botanical source: The herb Pericarpium Zanthoxyli is the dried ripe pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb.et Zucc., or Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim., they are plants of the Zanthoxylum L. Genus, the Rutaceae(rue or citrus family) family of the Sapindales order.

 Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.01 (1).Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.:
 Botanical description: The Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim., is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Zanthoxylum L genus, it is commonly known as "Hua Jiao", perennial herb, deciduous shrubs or small trees, 3~7 meters high. Aroma. Stems usually have increased peeling, and the branches are pubescent. Odd-pinnate compound leaves alternate; leaf shaft abaxial surface with narrow leaf wings on both sides, the back of the scattered upturned small prickles; petiole on both sides often have a pair of flat base extra wide prickles; leaflets sessile; 5~11 leaves oval or ovate-oblong, 1.5~7 cm long, 1~3 cm wide, apex acute or shortly acuminate, usually dimpled, base cuneate, margin serrate or serpentine, serrations There are large, transparent glands with no bristles on them. The midrib below often has small prickles that rise diagonally upwards. Two bases are covered with a cluster of rust-brown villous, papery. Thyrses terminal, 2-6 cm long, floral axis densely shortly hairy, pedicel spreading; sepals small, caducous; flower unisexual, 4~8 tepals, round, narrowly triangular or lanceolate, Length 1~2 mm; 4~8 male flowers staminate, usually 5~7; 4~6 female flower's carpel, usually 3-4, without ovary handle, style curved, stigma capitate. 2-3 mature carpels, pods globose, red or purplish, densely dense and prominent glandular spots. Seeds oval, about 3.5 mm in diameter, shiny. Its flowering period is from April to June, fruiting from September to October.

 Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.02 Shrub or small tree, about 3~6 meters. Stems sparsely slightly inclined upward prickles, base side flat; twigs pubescent. Leaves alternate; odd-pinnate, 8~14 cm long, rachis with narrow wings, 5~9 leaflets, opposite, almost sessile, ovate leaves; elliptic to widely ovate, 2~3.5 cm wide and 1.5~3 cm, apex acute; usually slightly concave, ranging from the base of the wedge, blunt edges jagged teeth glandular points below the base of the midrib tufted villous.

 Prickly-ash Peel Corymbose panicles, terminal or grow on collateral: Flowers unisexual, dioecious, rachis pubescent; 4~8 tepals, triangular-lanceolate:male flowers with 5~7 stamens, anthers oblong, glandular anther point near the top, 2 filaments linear degradation carpel, 2 forks crack tip; 3~4 female carpels, the upper part of the ovary spine protruding glands, style slightly recurved, stigma head-shaped, ovary sessile. 2~3 mature carpels. Fruit red to purple, densely verrucose glandular points. 1 seed, black and shiny. Its flowering period is from March to May, fruiting from July to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in sunny, warm and fertile places, and cultivated. The plant distributes in central and south China, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, southwest, northwest of China, and other areas.

 Growth characteristics: The plant zanthoxylum bungeanum prefers a warm and humid climate, likes the sun, not tolerant to cold, seedling branches are hurt by coldness at -18℃, adult trees will freeze to death at -25℃. It is resistant to drought resistance, shade, not resistant to moisture and wind. It has strong adaptability to the soil, and grows well in sandy loam or loam with deep, loose and fertile soil layer, but grows best in alkaline soil with limestone development, so is often used for afforestation on the calcareous mountain.

 Characters of herbs: peppercorns are composed of 1~2, occasionally 3~4 spherical fruits, each of which is 4.5~5 mm in diameter, dehiscent from the apex along the abdominal suture or abdominal-abdominal suture, often in the form of two valves connected at the base. Minute fruit tip with tiny beak, base mostly with 1~2 granule did not develop free carpel, diameter 1~2 mm. The outer surface is deep red, purplish-red, or brownish red, wrinkled, with numerous punctate projections of oil. Endocarp smooth, yellowish, thinly leathery, partially detached and curled from the mesophyll. Fruit stalk ca. 0.8 mm in diameter, thinly hirsute. Fruit leather, slightly tough, with a distinctive aroma, lasting spicy taste.

 Pharmacological actions: The herb Pericarpium Zanthoxyli has the effect of anti-experimental gastric ulcer, and has a biaxial effect on the movement of intestinal smooth muscle. Orally administration to rat water extract of Pericarpium Zanthoxyli 10 g/kg, 20 g/kg, or ether extract 3.0 ml/kg can prevent the thrombosis caused by electric stimulation of carotid artery in rats. Besides, there are anti-diarrhea, liver protection, analgesia, anti-inflammatory, local anesthesia, antibacterial, killing scabies and mite.

 Medicinal efficacy: Warm the middle and relieve pain, warm the middle and disperse cold, eliminate dampness, relieve pain, relieve diarrhea, kill worms and stop itching, detoxify fish smell and fish poison. It is indicated for epigastric cold pain of spleen and stomach cold deficiency, cold pain of stomach and abdomen, vomiting and diarrhea, abdominal pain due to parasitic malnutrition, abdominal pain due to roundworm, ascaris abdominal pain, ascariasis, pinworm disease, colic pain, tooth pain, caries toothache, retention of food and prolonged elema, vomiting, cough and reversed flow of Qi, cough asthma of lung coldness, wind cold dampness numbness, dysentery, externally for treatment of eczema pruritus, pruritus vulvae, morbid leukorrhea, scabies, etc.

 Administration of Pericarpium Zanthoxyli(Huā Jiāo): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Pericarpium Zanthoxyli(Huā Jiāo)
TCM Books: Internally:3~6 grams.Externally:proper amount,fumigation wash with water decoction(CP),Internally:water decoction, 0.5~1.5 qian(about 1.5~4.5 grams),or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:grinded into fine powder and apply stick,or fumigation wash with water decoction(DCTM),Internally:water decoction,3~6 grams,or prepared to pill,powder.Externally:proper amount,wash with water decoction,mouth wash,grinded into fine powder and apply stick(CHMM).


 Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb.et Zucc.01 (2).Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb.et Zucc.:
 Botanical description: The Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb.et Zucc., is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Zanthoxylum L genus, it is commonly known as "Qing Jiao", shrubs, 1~2 meters high. There are short stabs on stems, and they are flattened on both sides of the base, and the branches are dark purple. Bark dark gray, more thorny, hairless. Leaves 7~19 leaflets, leaflets papery, few sessile, often alternate at base of leaf axis; petiole 1~3 mm long, leaf broadly ovate-lanceolate or broadly ovate-shaped, 5~10 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, apically short to acuminate, base rounded or broadly cuneate, symmetrical on both sides, sometimes sloping on one side, more or less pronounced oil spots; leaf surface with fine short hairs or hairy cues visible under a magnifying glass body, leaf margins are finely split teeth or nearly entire, tooth gaps are below the glandular point pale green, sparsely glandular; leaf axis with narrow wings, with sparse and slightly upward small prickles.

 Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb.et Zucc.01 Corymbose panicles, terminal, 3~8 cm long; flowers small and numerous, cyan, unisexual, sepals, 5 petals; petals pale yellowish white, ca. 2 mm. Female flowers have 3~5 carpels.

 Red-brown petal segments, dark greenish or brownish black after drying, 4~5 mm in diameter, with few awns on the tip and small oil spot; seed diameter 3~4 mm. The inner rind is yellowish and often separated from the outer seed coat by the base and reeled inwards. The aroma is strong, and the sesame is long-lasting. Its flowering period is from July to September, the fruiting period is from September to December.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows at the edge of a forest, thicket or beside a stone on a slope. The plant distributes in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area.

 Characters of herbs: peppercorns has 1~3 spherical fruit. Fruit 3~4 mm in diameter, apex with short beak tip. The outer surface is grassy, yellow-green or brown-green, with reticulations and most concave oil spots. Endocarp pale. Fruit stalks glabrous. The skin is thin and crisp, the air is fresh, the taste is spicy and sweet. The herb with big grain, color purplish red, fragrance strong is better.

 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Hua Jiao:Prickly-ash Peel or Pericarpium Zanthoxyli.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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