Fructus Litseae(Mountain Spicy Fruit).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon06 Introduction: Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs: also known as interior-warming herbs, an agent or substance herbs that warms the interior and expels internal cold, also known as cold-expelling herbs.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 07 Introduction: The Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs are known including:, , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [11] kinds of common TCM herbs, [16] kinds of related plant species are recorded in this category. These Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs are briefly introduced separately:

Fructus Litseae(Mountain Spicy Fruit).

 Mountain Spicy Fruit Brief Introduction: The herb Fructus Litseae is the dried ripe fruit of Litsea cubela(Lour.) Pers.(family Lauraceae), used to warm the stomach for relieving vomiting, epigastric and abdominal pain due to cold. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Litseae, Mountain Spicy Fruit, Bì Chénɡ Qié.

 ✵Official herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Litseae(Mountain Spicy Fruit) as the dried ripe fruit of (1). Litsea cubela(Lour.) Pers. It is a plant of the Litsea genus, the Lauraceae family, Ranales order plant. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Litseae(Mountain Spicy Fruit) as the dried ripe fruit of (1). Litsea cubela(Lour.) Pers., or (2). Piper cubeba L. The species Piper cubeba L. is a plant of the Piperaceae family, Piperales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Litsea cubela Lour.Pers. (1).Litsea cubela(Lour.)Pers.: It is commonly known as Shān Jī Jiāo. Deciduous shrubs or small trees, 8~10 meters tall. Bark yellowish-green when young, grayish brown when old, glabrous. Leaves alternate, papery, aromatic, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 7~11 cm long, 1.4~2.4 cm wide, apex acuminate, base cuneate, entire, dark green above, flour green below, pale. Glabrous on both sides, pinnate veins, 6~10 lateral veins on each side, fine, midrib and lateral veins protruding on both sides; Petiole 6~20 mm long, slender, glabrous.

 Inflorescences solitary or clustered, pedicels slender, 6~10 mm long; Bract margin has eyelash; Each inflorescence with 4~6 flowers, opening first or at the same time, 6 perianth lobes, broadly ovate; 9 stamens fertile, filaments mid-lower hairy, glands at base of 3rd wheel with short stipitate; Vestigial pistil glabrous; Female flowers in stamens middle-lower pubescent; Ovary ovate, style short, stigma capitate.

 Fruit subglobose, ca. 5 mm in diameter., glabrous, green when young, black when mature, pedicels 2~4 mm long, apex slightly thickened. Its flowering period is from February to March, fruiting from July to August.

 Litsea cubela Lour.Pers. Ecological environment: The plant prefers wet climate and light. Grows in the mountains, thickets, sparse forest or forest roadside, water edge, at area with altitude of 500~3,200 meters above sea level. Stunted growth under insufficient light. It is suitable for acid red soil, yellow soil and mountain brown soil with the deep upper layer and good drainage. The herb is produced in the lower and middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, Zhujiang river area, southwest area, and Taiwan of China. It is also distributed in Southeast Asian countries.

 Trait identification: Ripe fruit, suborbicular, 3~6 mm in diameter. Skin brown or dark brown, with fine reticular wrinkles. Persistent small persistent calyx is often seen at the base of the fruit, 6-toothed, followed by a slender stalk, all easily detached. Pericarp and pericarp are soft and oily, the pericarp is thin and crisp. It contains 1 seed, 2 cotyledons, yellowish-brown, oily, small, towards the top of the fruit. Smell strong fragrance, slightly as old ginger, slightly spicy and bitter taste. The herb with round grain, strong smell, rich oil is better.

 Piper cubeba L. (2).Piper cubeba L.: It is commonly known as Bì Chénɡ Qié. An evergreen climbing vine, about 6 meters long. Leaves alternate, elliptic ovate or long ovate, apex acuminate, base rounded or oblique cordate, entire, both surfaces smooth and glabrous. Flowers unisexual, dioecious, into solitary decemes, ca. 10 cm long; Flowers small, white, no perianth. Drupe globose, ca. 5 mm in diameter, dark brown. Fruiting period: August to September.

 Ecological environment and distribution: It was introduced and cultivated in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan of China, it is also distributed in the Malay peninsula, and other areas of East South Asia.

 Piper cubeba L. Trait identification:Fruit upper part near round ball, diameter 3~6 mm. Surface dark brown to black-brown, reticular wrinkles, the apex of a small protuberant stigma remnant not very obvious; Base pericarp elongated, forming thin straight pseudostipe, 3~7 mm long, ca. 1 mm in diameter, with longitudinal wrinkles on surface. Exocarp and pericarp slightly softer, endocarp thin and crisp, containing 1 immature seed, yellowish-brown, oily, some wrinkled and shriveled. Smells strong fragrance, bitter taste with large grain, oily foot, strong fragrance is better.


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