Rhizoma Picrorhizae(Figwortflower Picrorhiza Rhizome)

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 05 Introduction: The Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [22] kinds of common TCM herbs, [53] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness are briefly introduced separately:

Rhizoma Picrorhizae(Figwortflower Picrorhiza Rhizome).

 Rhizoma Picrorhizae Brief Introduction: The Herb Rhizoma Picrorhizae is the dried rhizome of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell(family Scrophulariaceae), used (1).to remove damp-heat for the treatment of acute dysentery and jaundice, and (2).to relieve consumptive fever in cases of phthisis and infantile malnutrition. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Picrorhizae, Figwortflower Picrorhiza Rhizome, Hú Huánɡ Lián.

 ✵ Common herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Picrorhizae(Figwortflower Picrorhiza Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of species (1). Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell., or (2). Picrorhiza kurroa Royle., they are plants of the Neopicrorhiza(Picrorhiza Royle ex Benth.). genus, the Scrophulariaceae family of the Tubiflorae order. These commonly used species are introduced as:

 Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell (1).Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell.:  It is commonly known as Hú Huánɡ Lián. Perennial herb, hairy. Rhizome cylindrical, slightly woody, 15~20 cm long. Leaves nearly root, slightly leathery; Leaf blade spatulate, 5~10 cm long, apex acute, base narrow into the winged sheathed petiole, margin serrate. Flower stems are longer than leaves; Spikes 5~10 cm long, with a few bracts below; Bracts oblong or lanceolate, equal to calyx; 5 sepals, lanceolate, ca. 5 mm long, ciliate; Corolla shorter than calyx, apex 5 equal lobes, lobes ovate, ciliate, inner mask sparsely pilose, outer glabrous or subglabrous; 4 stamens, filaments slender, corolla extended, glabrous; Ovary 2-locular, style slender, stigma simple. Capsule long ovate, 6 mm long, slightly slotted laterally, mainly interlocular dehiscent. Seeds oblong, 1 mm long. It is flowering in June, fruiting in July.

 Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell Ecological environment: It grows in alpine meadows. It is distributed in the area of the Himalayas.

 Trait identification: Rhizome cylindrical, straight or curved, mostly unbranched, usually in small segments, 2~9 cm long, 3~8 mm in diameter. The surface is grayish-yellow to yellowish-brown, lustrous, rough, with longitudinal wrinkles and horizontal ring lines, emboli shed place is brown; There are residual leaf markings at the upper end, densely scaly, dark reddish-brown, or deciduous, semicircular nodules. Root mark round point shape, more near the node. Hard and brittle, easily broken, broken dust; The cross-section shows 4~7 small vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Slight smell, extremely bitter and lasting taste. With thick, broken when dusted, section gray-black, the bitter taste one is better.

 Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell (2).Picrorhiza kurroa Royle.:  It is commonly known as Xi Zang Hú Huánɡ Lián. Perennial herb, 5~10 cm tall. Rhizome stout, long conical, transverse, 15~50 cm long, internodes dense, often dark brown scaly old leaves and terete branches. Leaves subbasal, often integrated rosette; Leaf blade spatulate to ovate, 2~7 cm long, 1.5~3.5 cm wide, apex rounded or obtuse, base gradually narrowed into a short stalk, margin except base obtuse serrate, glabrous, blackened when dry. Scape arising from leaves, 5~15 cm tall, glandular-hairy, flowers dense into a spikelike panicle; Bracts, calyx hairy, bracts ovate; 4 sepals, 5~6 mm long, one lobe several linear, the other 4 lobes sublanceolate, narrowly oblong to narrowly elliptic; Corolla dark purple or light blue, bilobate, inside and outside with sparsely pilose; 4 stamens, 2-strong, inserted in middle of corolla tube; Ovary 2-chambered; Ovules numerous per compartment, style slender, stigma capitate. Capsule ovoid, 9~12 mm long, apex 4-lobed. Seeds numerous, oblong, glossy, reticulate. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from August to September.

  Ecological environment: It grows in the rocks and stone piles in the alpine region with an altitude of 3,600-4,400 meters or the sunny place of the shallow soil layer. It is distributed in Sichuan, Yunnan, Xizang.

 Trait identification:Rhizome cylindrical, slightly curved, occasionally branched, 3~12 cm long, 2~14 mm in diameter. The surface is grey-brown to dark brown, have protuberant bud mark and round root mark or fine root remnant, the thicker has close horizontal furrow, the upper end is close by dark brown scale shape petiole remnant. Light, hard and brittle, easily broken, light brown or dark brown in section, with 4~10 white vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Slight smell, bitter taste. The herb which is thick, crisp, strong bitter taste is the better.


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