Introduction of Huang Lian:Golden Thread or Rhizoma Coptidis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 05 Introduction: The Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [22] kinds of common TCM herbs, [53] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness are briefly introduced separately:

 
Rhizoma Coptidis(Golden Thread).

Coptis chinensis Franch Pin Yin Name: Huánɡ Lián.
 English Name: Golden Thread.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Coptidis.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Rhizoma Coptidis is the dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch., Coptis deltoidea C.Y.Cheng et Hsiao or Coptis teeta Wall.(family Ranunculaceae), used to clear heat, dry dampness, purge fire and counteract toxins for treating dysentery, high fever with restlessness, boils, sores, abscesses, and extremely for relieving eczema. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Coptidis, Golden Thread, Huánɡ Lián.

 Botanical source: The herb Rhizoma Coptidis(Golden Thread) is the dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch., Coptis deltoidea C.Y.Cheng et Hsiao or Coptis teeta Wall., they are plants of the Coptis Genus, the Ranunculaceae family of the Ranunculales order.

 Coptis chinensis Franch 02 Common herbal classics defined the herb Coptis Root(Huang Lian) as the dry root and rhizome of the Ranunculaceae family plant species (1). Coptis chinensis Franch., or (2). Coptis deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao, or (3). Coptis omeiensis (Chen) C. Y. Cheng., or (4). Coptis teeta Wall. They are plants of the Coptis Salisb Genus, the Ranunculaceae family of the Ranales order. These 4 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Coptis chinensis Franch. (1).Coptis chinensis Franch.:
 Botanical description: The Coptis chinensis Franch., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family and Coptis genus, it is commonly known as "Coptis chinensis", "Huang Lian", perennial herb, 15~25 cm tall. Yellow rhizomes, often branched, densely fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, petiole 6~16 cm long, glabrous; leaves slightly leathery, ovate-shaped, broadly 10 cm, 3-segmented; central lobe slightly rhombic, with stalks squeezing down to 1~1.8 cm in diameter. The lobes are then feathered, deep lobes 4~5 pairs, nearly oblong, apex acute, 2~6 mm apart from each other, margins with serrated serrations; bilateral lobes obliquely ovate, more central than short, ranging from 2 deep or rarely 2 completely split, lobes often repinned; deep above the veins pubescent, below the hairless. 1 to 2 flower stalks, as long as or longer than leaves; dichotomous or sessile cymes, 3~8 flowers; sepals lanceolate, 3~5-pined; 5 deep sepals, yellowish green, oblong shaped ovate to lanceolate, 9~12.5 mm long, 2~3 mm wide; petal linear or linear-pull needle-shaped, 5~6.5 mm long, apex pointed, with nectar in the center; stamens numerous, outer stamens longer than petals Slightly short or nearly equal, anthers broadly elliptic, yellow; 8~12 carpels, 6~12 fruits, with a handle, length 6~7 mm. 7~8 seeds, oblong, ca. 2 mm, brown. Its flowering period is from February to April, fruiting period is from March to June.

 Coptis chinensis Franch. Ecological environment: The Coptis Chinensis Franch., grows in mountain forest or the valley shade, wild or cultivated. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area, the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, area of the Weihe River, China.

 Coptis chinensis Franch. The Coptis chinensis Franch., prefers to cool, moist, shady and avoids high temperatures and drought. Generally distributed in high mountain areas of 1,200 ~ 1,800 meters above sea level, it requires a natural environment with low temperature and high air humidity. Can not withstand strong sunlight, prefer the weak light, so it needs shade. Shallow roots, distributed in 5~10 cm soil layer, suitable for topsoil loose and fertile, rich humus, soil deep soil, pH 5.5~6.5, slightly acidic. In the shade of alpine mountains, altitude between 1,500 and 2,300 meters above sea level, wild or sometimes cultivated.

 Growth characteristics: The Coptis chinensis prefers cold, cool and wet, rainy and foggy production area, the annual average temperature is about 10℃, in winter it can pass under snow and ice cover, leaves can keep evergreen. The annual average rainfall is 1300-1700 mm, and the relative humidity is about 90%. Strong fertility resistance, the upper layer of the soil is rich in humus fertile loose sandy loam, the lower layer of the soil to retain water and fertility of the clay soil is the most suitable, acidic to slightly acidic soil, pH5.5. Coptis chinensis is a shade plant, with a strong leaf area group, can use the sunshine from the gap between the forest, avoid direct light.

 Characters of herbs: The rhizome more clusters of branches, bending huge embrace, shaped like a chicken foot, commonly known as "chicken foot Coptis"; Single branch cylindrical, 3~6 cm long, 2~8 mm in diameter. The surface is yellowish yellow or yellowish-brown, the cortex is reddish-brown, rough, with irregular nodular uplift, fibrous roots and fibrous root residues, and some internode surface is smooth as the stem, commonly known as "bridge"; The upper part of the residual brown scaly leaves, the tip often has a residual stem or petiole. The texture is hard, the broken surface is not neat, skin orange-red or dark brown, wood bright yellow or orange-yellow, pulp reddish-brown, sometimes hollow. It has a slight breath and a bitter taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. Anti-microbial and antigenic insect effect: Coptis chinensis has a strong inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysentery, Shigella dysentery. ②. Antiviral effect: BALA/C  mice were infected with Coxsackie B3 virus (CB3V) to establish an animal model of CB3V myocarditis. Coptis chinensis was used to treat the infected mice and showed antiviral effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and dry dampness, discharge fire and detoxify. It is indicated for dampness heat and distention and fullness, vomiting and swallowing acid, dysentery, jaundice, high fever and unconsciousness or coma, excessive heart fire, irritability and insomnia(vexation, could not sleep), blood heat and epistaxis, red eyes and toothache, consumptive thirst, carbuncle swollen ulcer sores; External treatment of eczema, wet sores, ear canal discharges pus.

 Administration of Rhizoma Coptidis(Huánɡ Lián): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Coptidis(Huánɡ Lián)
TCM Books: Internally:2~5 grams,Externally:proper amount(CP),Internally:water decoction, 0.5~1 qian(about 1.5~3 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:grinded to fine powder and apply stick, wash with water decoction or drip to eyes(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 grams,grinded into fine powder, 0.3~0.6 grams each time, or prepare to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,grinded into powder and apply stick, or wash with water decoction, or prepare to paste, or infusing in water to use(CHMM).


 Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao. (2).Coptis deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao.:
 Botanical description: The Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family and Coptis genus, it is commonly known as "Coptis deltoidea", or "Triangular Leaf Coptis", or "Sanjiaoye Huang Lian", perennial. The morphology is similar to that of Coptis chinensis. The main feature is that the rhizomes are not branched or less branched. Leaf blade papery, ovate, as long as 16 cm, width 15 cm, 3 fully divided, lobes with distinct stalks; central lobes triangular-ovate, base abruptly growing up to 2.5 cm finely stipitate, pinnately lobed 4 to 6 pairs, bilateral oblique ovate triangle, unequal 2 deep or semi-lobed, small lobes adjacent to each other. Sepals linear-lanceolate, 3-lobed near middle or zygomatic pinnate. Calyx narrowly ovate; petals nearly oblanceolate, broadly broad; stamens ca. 20, ca. 1/2 ca. only; 9~12 petals. Seed infertility.

 Rhizomes yellow, not branched or branched, internodes distinct, densely rooted numerous fine roots, with stolons removed. Leaves 3~11 pieces; leaf blade ovate, slightly leathery, up to 16 cm, up to 15 cm wide, trisected, lobes with distinct stalks; central entire lobes triangular-ovate, 3~12 cm long, 3~10 cm wide, apical acute or acuminate, 4~6 pairs deeply pinnate, deeply lobes adjoining each other, margins with very sharp serrations; lateral lobes obliquely ovate-triangular, 3-8 cm long, Unequal bifurcation, surface along veins pubescent or subglabrous, abaxially glabrous, veins on both sides bulging; petiole 6~18 cm long, glabrous.

 Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao. 1~2 calyxes, slightly longer than leaves; sessile cymes, 4~8-flowered; sepals linear-lanceolate, 3-lobed or medullate-pinnate; sepals yellow-green, narrowly ovate, Length 8~12.5 mm, Width 2~2.5 mm, Tips acuminate; about 10 petals, nearly lanceolate, 3~6 mm long, 0.7~1 mm wide, apex acuminate, middle slightly dilated, with honey Groove; Stamens ca. 20, only ca. 1/2 as long as petals; anthers yellow, filaments narrowly linear; 9~12 carpels, styles slightly curved. Long, oval-shaped, 6~7 mm long, carpels stalk 7~8 mm long, puberulous. Its flowering period is from March to April, fruiting from April to June.

 Ecological environment: The Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao., grows in the mountain forest at the altitude of 1,600-2,200 meters above sea level, often cultivated, rare in the wild. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area of China.

 The Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao., prefers to cold and cool environment, better damp, avoid direct light and high-temperature drying. When cultivated, the area which altitude over 1,800 meters above sea level should be selected. The normal temperature range for plant growth is 8~34 Deg C.

 Coptis omeiensis ChenC.Y.Cheng. (3).Coptis omeiensis (Chen)C.Y. Cheng.:
 Botanical description: The Coptis omeiensis (Chen)C.Y. Cheng., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family and Coptis genus, it is commonly known as "Coptis omeiensis", or "Emei Huang Lian", Rhizomes yellow, cylindrical, rarely divergent, short internodes. Leaves long-stemmed; leaf blade slightly leathery, outline lanceolate or narrowly ovate, 6~16 cm long, 3.5~6.3 cm wide, trischizoic, centrally lobed lanceolate, 5.5~15 cm long, width 2.2~5.5 cm, apex acuminate to long acuminate, base with 0.5~2 cm long pedicel, 7~10 pairs of pinnate deep lobes, lateral lobes 1/3~1/1 long only central lobes. 4, oblique-ovoid, ranging from two deep or nearly two full splits, both sides of the veins are uplift, in addition to the surface along the veins are puberulous, the other parts of hairless; petiole length 5~14 cm, no hair.

 Calyx usually single, erect, 15~27 cm tall; inflorescence is multi-winged cymes, the lower 2 pedestals often paired to ground; bracts lanceolate, margin with dentate fine teeth; pedicel up to 2.2 cm; sepals yellow-green, narrowly lanceolate, 7.5~10 mm long, 0.7~1.2 mm wide, apex acuminate; 9~12 petals, linear-lanceolate, ca. 1/2 as long as sepal, centrally Closed groove; 16~32 stamens, anthers yellow, filaments ca. 4 mm; 9~14 carpel. The pods and carpels are nearly as long, 5-6 mm long and 3 mm wide; 3~4 seeds, yellow-brown, oblong, 1.8 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, smooth. It is flowering from February to March, fruiting from April to July.

 Coptis omeiensis ChenC.Y.Cheng. Ecological environment: The Coptis omeiensis (Chen)C.Y. Cheng., grows on the steep cliffs of the hanging rock at an altitude, on a mountain cliff or rock, damp place at an altitude of 1,000~1,700 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in Emei, Manya, and Ebian County of Sichuan, China.

 The Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao., prefers to wet environment, fear of direct light, better damp, avoid direct light and high-temperature drying. The annual average temperature of this type of adapted habitat is 17.2 Deg C and the annual precipitation 169~180 Mm, relative humidity 80%. The soil is yellow or yellow-brown soil with a pH of 5.5~6.5.

 Coptis teeta Wall. (4).Coptis teeta Wall.:
 Botanical description: The Coptis teeta Wall., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family and Coptis genus, it is commonly known as "Coptis teeta", or "Yunnan Huang Lian", rhizomes yellow, internodes dense, raw fibrous roots. Leaves long-handled; leaf blade ovate-triangular, 6~12 cm long, 5~9 cm wide, trisected, central entire lobes ovate, 3~6 cm wide, pedicel 1.4 cm long at base, apical acuminate, 3~6 pairs deeply pinnate, deeply lobed oblong-elliptic-ovate, acutely pointed at tip, sparsely spaced from each other, up to 1.5 cm wide apart, margins with sharply pointed sharp serrations, lateral Total lobed sessile or stalked 1~6 mm long slender, obliquely ovate, shorter than central full lobes, 3.3~7 cm long, bilobed to ca. 4 mm from base, leaf veins bulging on both sides except surface margin The veins are pubescent, others are hairless; petiole length 8~19 cm, glabrous. 1~2 calyx, 15~25 cm tall at fruiting stage; polychaete inflorescences with 3~5-flowered; bracts elliptic, 3-lobed or pinnately lobed; bracts yellow-green, oval, 7.5~8 mm long, 2.5~3 mm wide; petal spoon-shaped, 5.4~5.9 mm long, 0.8~1 mm wide, round or blunt at the top, narrowed into a slender claw below the middle, with honey in the centre Grooves; anthers ca. 0.8 mm, filaments 2~2.5 mm long; 11~14 carpels, style outwardly curved. It is 7~9 mm long and 3~4 mm wide.

 Coptis teeta Wall. Ecological environment: The Coptis teeta Wall., grows in the humid and wet environment of steep mountain slope(slope larger than 40 degrees) under the mixed forest of Zhongshan evergreen broad-leaved forest and the hemlock broad-leaved mixed forest, but it also has niches in the valleys and gentle slopes. Selecting trends, these forests are generally divided into 3~4 layers under the canopy of closed trees. There is almost no direct sunlight reaching the lower layers of the forest. The relative humidity is over 80%. The ground is covered with deep litter layers, and the thickness is 4~12 cm. The roots of the various plant populations are basically in the litter layer, with very little contact with the soil. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in northwestern Yunnan and southeastern Xizang, it is cultivated in Yunnan of China. It also distributes in Myanmar.

 The Coptis teeta Wall., is an endangered species, it prefers to yellow-brown earth, brown earth and dark brown earth that is rich in humus, acidic, granite, granitic gneiss, gneiss, sandy shale and silty mud stone. Mainly, the soil profile is well-developed, the litter layer is thick, the decomposition is good, and the humus layer is developed. It is sandy soil to clayey soil, with granular and nuclear granular structure, good physical and chemical properties, and high natural fertility.

 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Huang Lian:Golden Thread or Rhizoma Coptidis.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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