Introduction of Bai Tou Weng:Chinese Pulsatilla Root or Radix Pulsatillae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 05 Introduction: The Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [22] kinds of common TCM herbs, [53] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness are briefly introduced separately:

 
Radix Pulsatillae(Chinese Pulsatilla Root).

Pulsatilla chinensis Pin Yin Name: Bái Tóu Wēnɡ.
 English Name: Chinese Pulsatilla Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Pulsatillae.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Radix Pulsatillae is the dried root of Pulsatilla chinensis(Bge.)Regel(family Ranunculaceae), used for treating bacterial and amebic dysentery, and externally for trichomona vaginitis.The herb is commonly known as Radix Pulsatillae, Chinese Pulsatilla Root, Bái Tóu Wēnɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Pulsatillae(Chinese Pulsatilla Root) is the dried root of Pulsatilla chinensis(Bge.)Regel, it is a plant of the Anemone Genus, the Ranunculaceae(buttercup or crowfoot family) family of the Ranunculales order.

 Pulsatilla chinensis Bunge Regel. Common herbal classics of China defined the herb Radix Pulsatillae(Chinese Pulsatilla Root, Bai Tou Weng) as the dry root of several Ranunculaceae family plant species, including (1). Pulsatilla chinensis(Bunge)Regel., or (2). Pulsatilla turczaninovii Kryl.et Serg., or (3). Pulsatilla ambigua Turcz.ex Pritz., or (4). Pulsatilla dahurica(Fisch.ex DC.)Spreng., or (5). Pulsatilla cernua(Thunb.)Bercht.et Opiz., or (6). Pulsatilla campanella Fisch.ex Regel.; the herb stem and leaf of Chinese Pulsatilla(Bai Tou Weng Jing Ye), and the herb Flower of Chinese Pulsatilla(Bai Tou Weng Hua) also comes from stem, leaf or flower parts of the above species, accordingly. The common herbal classics of North America and Europe defined the herb Pulsatilla as the dried above-ground parts of 2 species of the Ranunculaceae:(7). Pulsatilla vulgaris Miller(syn. with Anemone pulsatilla L.) and (8). Pulsatilla pratensis L. These 8 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Pulsatilla chinensis Bunge Regel. (1).Pulsatilla chinensis(Bunge)Regel.:
 Botanical description: The Pulsatilla chinensis(Bunge)Regel., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family(buttercup or crowfoot family) and nemone genus, it is also known as "Anemone chinensis Bunge", or "Bai Tou Weng", perennial herb, up to 15~35 cm high. Rhizome thick, diameter 8~15 mm. 4~5 basal leaves, flowering time out of the ground, leaves 3 full splits; petiole 7~15 cm long, dense mulberry hair; leaf profile wide oval, length 4.5~14 cm, width 6.5~16 cm, above the sparse coat, Late glabrescent, densely villous below, 3-cleavate, central entire lobes shank or subsessile, 3-parted, central part lobes cuneate-ovate, or narrowly cuneate, margin or dentate, lateral particulate Ranging from 2 lobed; lateral lobes sessile or nearly sessile, ranging from 3-parted. 1~2 flowers, anthesis growth, 15~35 cm high, 3 bracts, basally connate, simple 3~10 mm, lobes striate, outside densely villous, glabrous inside; flowers bisexual, single, erect, Pedicels 2.5~5.5 cm long; 6 sepals, arranged in 2 rows, narrowly ovate or oblong-ovate, 2.8~4.4 cm long, 9~20 mm wide, blue-violet, densely pilose outside; petals absent; About half of sepals; carpels majority, coat. Achenes 3-4 mm long, villous, feathers at the top of the persistent style, length 3.5-6.5 cm. Its flowering period is from April to May, the fruiting period is from June to July.

 Pulsatilla chinensis Bunge Regel. Ecological environment: The Pulsatilla chinensis(Bunge)Regel., grows in plains and low hills and slopes of grass, woodland, or dry early multi-stone slope, and grow more in sunny, well-drained, deep sandy loam soil or clay loam areas. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in Anhui, Sichuan(Baoxing, 3,200 meters above sea level), southern Gansu, Hebei(200~1,900 meters above sea level), Henan, northern Hubei, Jiangsu, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and other areas of China.

 Pulsatilla chinensis Bunge Regel.  Ornamental value: there are more than 30 species of pulsatilla, flower-bell, with white, purple and blue colors, pulsatilla whole coat, very strange, open from the flower to the mature capsule a month and a half, the first flower viewing fruit. Summer and autumn, green leaves, after the frost hibernation, as a wild-rooted plant, year planting for many years ornamental, to overcome the biennial herb flower high cost, easy to degenerate the shortcomings of varieties, the garden can be planted in the forest Gaps and shrubs, or in natural ways planted in the flowers, because of its early flowering, short plants, is the ideal ground cover species, fruit feathery style persistent, shaped like a head, very chic. It can also be used to enjoy flower beds or potted plants. Besides, Pulsatilla is very sensitive to acid rain. Pulsatilla died soon after acid rain fell. This characteristic of Pulsatilla not only makes it an indicator plant for detecting environmental pollution but also increases its value as an ornamental flower.

 Growth characteristics: The Pulsatilla chinensis prefers a cool and dry climate. Cold resistance, drought resistance, high-temperature resistance. The sandy loam with a deep soil layer and good drainage is the best growing soil, alluvial soil and clay loam are the next, and the low land with poor drainage is not suitable for planting.

 Characters of herbs: subcylindrical or conical, slightly tortuous, 6~20 cm long, 0.5~2 cm in diameter. Externally yellowish-brown or brown, irregularly and longitudinally wrinkled or furrowed, bark easily exfoliated, the exposed wood yellow, some exhibiting reticulate fissures, and cracks, usually with decayed depressed holes near rootstock. Rootstock slightly swelled, white-tomentose, some showing sheathlike pedicel bases. Texture hard and, fracture yellowish-white or pale yellowish-brown in the bark and pale yellow in wood. Odor, slight; taste, slightly bitter and astringent.

 The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

 Pharmacological actions: The decoction of the Radix Pulsatillae and its saponin can significantly inhibit the growth of amoeba. Fresh juice, decoction and ethanol extract of Radix Pulsatillae have an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Dysentery bacillus, and Typhoid bacillus. It has inhibitory and insecticidal action on Trichomonas vaginalis, fights the influenza virus, and so on effect. Alcohol extract of Radix Pulsatillae also has sedative and analgesic effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxify, cool blood and stanch dysentery, drying dampness, and insecticidal action. It is indicated for fever, bloody dysentery of toxic heat, amoebic dysentery, red and white dysentery, epistaxis, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, hemorrhoids, cold and heat type warm malaria(characterized by the patient's running a fever followed by feeling cold), morbid leukorrhea, pruritus vulvae, scrofula, eczema, carbuncle and sores, red eyes and pains.

 Administration of Radix Pulsatillae(Bái Tóu Wēnɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Pulsatillae(Bái Tóu Wēnɡ)
TCM Books: Internally:9~15 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams),fresh herb 0.5~1 liang(about 15~30 grams),or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:mashed and apply stick(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 15~30 grams, prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,wash with water decoction or mashed and apply stick(CHMM).


 Pulsatilla turczaninovii Kryl.et Serg. (2).Pulsatilla turczaninovii Kryl.et Serg.:
 Botanical description: The Pulsatilla turczaninovii Kryl.et Serg., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family(buttercup or crowfoot family) and nemone genus, it is also known as "Slim Leaf Pulsatilla", or "Xi Ye Bai Tou Weng", perennial herb, high 15~25 cm. 4~5 basal leaves, growing on the flowering ground. Leaves two to three-pinnate-shaped leaves; petiole 5~8 cm long, sometimes as long as 14 cm, sparsely white pilose; leaf blade narrowly elliptic or ovate-long 7 ~8.5 cm, width 2.5~4 cm, pinnae 3~4 pairs, the lower part of the handle, the upper part of the handleless, pinnately cracked, lobes linear-lanceolate or linear, sometimes ovate, wide 1~2.5 mm, often without sharp tip, margin slightly rewound, growing on both surfaces glabrous, or slightly villose along veins. 3 scapes, 2.8~3.4 cm long, base connate, 5~6 mm simple, lobes linear or linear-lanceolate, 1~1.5 mm wide, outer villous; flowers bisexual, simple Flowers, erect, pedicel ca. 1.5 cm, length up to 15 cm; 6 sepals, arranged in 2 rows, ovate-oblong or elliptic, 2.2~4.2 cm long, 1~1.3 cm wide, apex purple or obtuse, outside villous; petals absent; stamens numerous, ca. as long as sepals half; carpels numerous. Achenes ca. 4 mm, densely villous, feathery persistent at the top style, ca. 3 cm. It is flowering in May, fruiting in June.

 Pulsatilla turczaninovii Kryl.et Serg. Ecological environment: The Pulsatilla turczaninovii Kryl.et Serg., grows in grassland, or mountain slope, or edge of the forest. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in northern Hebei, Helen Mountain of Ningxia, western of the northeast area of China. It also distributes in Siberia.

 Characters of herbs: Roots thinner, long cylindrical, less branched; The skin does not drop off.

 Pulsatilla ambigua Turcz.ex Pritz. (3).Pulsatilla ambigua Turcz.ex Pritz.:
 Botanical description: The Pulsatilla ambigua Turcz.ex Pritz., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family(buttercup or crowfoot family) and Anemone genus, perennial herb, high 16~22 cm. Rhizome thick, diameter 5~8 mm. 6~8 basal leaves, flowering out of the ground, the leaves 3-cleavage; petiole 3~10 cm, sparsely hairy; leaf blade outline oval, length 2~3.2 cm, width 1.2~3.2 cm, above the few glabrous, the following villous, 3-lobed, central entire lobes with slender stems, 3-cleat, minute lobes 0.8~1.5 mm wide, with 1-2 denticles; lateral all-lobes resembling central lobes all with no stalk. 1~2 scape, high 16~22 cm, sparsely pubescent; 3 bracts, 1.5~2 cm long, basal connate, tube length ca. 2 mm, lobes lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, entire or 1 to 2-lobed, pubescent outside; flowers bisexual, single, erect, pedicel ca. 4 cm, resulting in up to 16 cm; 6 sepals, arranged in 2 rows, oblong-ovate, 2.2~2.8 cm long, 8 mm wide, Purple, apex apiculate, outside densely silky-hairy; petals absent; stamens numerous, ca. as long as sepals half; carpels numerous. Achenes about 2.5 mm are villous, feathers at the top of the persistent style, about 2.5~3 cm. It is flowering in July, fruiting from August to September.

 Pulsatilla ambigua Turcz.ex Pritz. Ecological environment: The Pulsatilla ambigua Turcz.ex Pritz., grows in meadow or forest edge at the area with an altitude of 2,100-3,400 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the northern Gansu, northern Qinghai, Xinjiang, etc. It also distributes in Siberia.

 Characters of herbs: Roots shorter, cylindrical, 5~8 mm in diameter, less branched.

 Pulsatilla dahurica Fisch.ex DC.Spreng. (4).Pulsatilla dahurica(Fisch.ex DC.)Spreng.:
 Botanical description: The Pulsatilla dahurica(Fisch.ex DC.)Spreng., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family(buttercup or crowfoot family) and Anemone genus, it is also known as "XingAn Bai Tou Weng", perennial herb, up to 25~40 cm high. Rhizome coarse 5~7 mm. 7~9 basal leaves, spreading from floor to ground, lobes 3 alltimed; petiole 2.8~15 cm, pubescent; leaf blade ovate, 4.5~7.5 cm long, 3~6 cm wide, glabrous above, below Veins sparsely pilose, 3-split or pinnately divided, central entire lobes with slender stalk, 3-lobed, lobes divided, lobes broadly linear or narrowly cuneate, entire or upper 2-3, small Lobes or teeth; lateral lobes sessile or nearly sessile, ranging from 3-parted, entire lobes entire or with few teeth or 2-3 lobes. 2 scapes, 2-4 piloses; 3 bracts, 4~5 cm long, basally connate, tube length 1.2~1.4 cm, lobes of basal leaves lobes, densely pilose outside; flowers bisexual, single, nearly erect, pedicel ca. 7.5 cm, resulting in growth, densely pubescent; 6 sepals, arranged in 2 rounds, elliptic-ovate, purple, ca. 2 cm, 0.5~1 cm wide, apex obtuse, Hairy; petals absent; onion numerous; carpels numerous, pilose. Achenes ca. 3 mm, densely pilose, with feathery persistent style on top, 5~6 cm long. Its flowering period is from May to June, the fruiting period is from June to July.

 Pulsatilla dahurica Fisch.ex DC.Spreng. Ecological environment: The Pulsatilla dahurica(Fisch.ex DC.) Spreng., grows in mountain grass slope, in stone lands and woodland. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the north area of China. It also distributes in Siberia.

 Characters of herbs: Roots slender cylindrical, up to 16 cm long, 5~7 mm in diameter.

 Pulsatilla cernua Thunb.Bercht.et Opiz. (5).Pulsatilla cernua(Thunb.)Bercht.et Opiz.:
 Botanical description: The Pulsatilla cernua(Thunb.)Bercht.et Opiz., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family(buttercup or crowfoot family) and Anemone genus, it is also known as "Pulsatilla cernua (Thunb.) Berchtold & Presl", perennial herb, high 14~28 cm. Rhizome coarse 5~7 mm. 4~6 basal leaves, flowering time out of the ground, leaves 3-cleft; petiole 4.5~14 cm, densely pilose; leaf blade oval, length 3~7.8 cm, width 4.4~6.5 cm, 3 cracked, central Slices with slender hairs, 3-lobed, entire lobes deeply divided twice, distal segments lobes lanceolate or narrowly ovate, 1.5~2.2 mm wide, entire or sparsely toothed; lateral lobes sessile, Cracks back, lobes with sparse teeth. 3 scapes, coat; 3 bracts, long 3~4.5 cm, basally connate, tube length 0.8~1.2 cm, lobes linear or narrowly oblong, entire or upper part 3 lobes, densely pilose outside ; Flowers bisexual, single, pedicel 2.5~6 cm, with cotton wool, the results of growth; 6 sepals, arranged in 2 round, oblong or ovate-oblong, length 1.8~3 cm, width 6~12 mm, purple Red, apex rounded or dull, outside densely pilose, inner surface glabrous; petals absent; stamens numerous, ca. as long as sepals half; carpels majority, coat. Achenes ca. 3 mm, pubescent, apex feathery persistent style, about 4 cm. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting from May to June.

 Pulsatilla cernua Thunb.Bercht.et Opiz. Ecological environment: The Pulsatilla cernua(Thunb.) Bercht.et Opiz., grows in mountain slope, and shrubs. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the north area of China. It also distributes in Siberia.

 Characters of herbs: The root length is about 8 cm, the upper diameter is 5~7 mm, and the lower part has a few branches. It has a tawny appearance.

 Pulsatilla campanella Fisch.ex Regel. (6).Pulsatilla campanella Fisch.ex Regel.:
 Botanical description: The Pulsatilla campanella Fisch.ex Regel., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family(buttercup or crowfoot family) and Anemone genus, it is also known as "Bell-calyx Pulsatilla", or "Zhong E Bai Tou Weng", perennial herb, up to 14~20 cm high. Rhizome thickness is 2.5~4 mm. 5~8 basal leaves, flowering out of the ground, leaves two to three pinnate compound leaves; petiole 2.5~12 cm, villous; blade ovate or narrowly ovate, 2.8~6 cm long, 2~3.5 cm, glabrous above, pubescent below, 3 pairs villous, obliquely ovate, pinnately fissile, ultimate segments narrowly lanceolate or narrowly ovate, ca. 1 mm wide, apex acute. 3 bracts, ca. 1.8 cm; base connate, tube length ca. 2 mm, bracts 3-parted, segments narrowly lanceolate, not divided or with 3 small lobes, Outside villous; flowers bisexual, single, slightly saggy, pedicel 2.5~4.5 cm, length up to 22 cm; 6 sepals, arranged in 2 rows, elliptic-ovate or ovate, 1.4~1.9 cm wide 8~9 mm, purple-brown, apex slightly outwardly curved, outside sericous villous; petals absent; stamens numerous; carpels numerous, pilose. Achenes about 4 mm, villous. Apex feathery persistent style, length 1.5~2.4 cm. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from June to July.

 Pulsatilla campanella Fisch.ex Regel. Ecological environment: The Pulsatilla campanella Fisch.ex Regel., grows in mountain grass slope at an altitude of 1,900~2,600 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the western area of Xinjiang. It also distributes in the Central Asia area.

 Characters of herbs: The Roots are thin, about 5 mm in diameter, slender branch roots.

 Pulsatilla vulgaris Miller. (7).Pulsatilla vulgaris Miller.:
 Botanical description: The Pulsatilla vulgaris Miller., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family(buttercup or crowfoot family) and Anemone genus, it is also known as "Anemone pulsatilla L.", or "Ou Bai Tou Weng", herbaceous perennial plant. It develops upright rhizomes, which function as a food-storage organ. Its leaves and stems are long, soft, silver-grey and hairy. It grows up to 15~30 cm high and when it is fruit-bearing up to 40 cm. The roots go deep into the soil (to 1 meter depth). The finely-dissected leaves are arranged in a rosette and appear with the bell-shaped flower in early spring. The purple flowers are followed by distinctive silky seed-heads that can persist on the plant for many months.

 Pulsatilla vulgaris Miller. Ecological environment: The Pulsatilla vulgaris Miller., grows in calcareous grassland, in sparsely wooded pine forests or meadows, often on a sunny sloping side with calcium-rich soil. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in Europe.

 The Anemone pulsatilla is found not in woods, but in open situations. It grows wild in the dry soils of almost every Central and Northern country of Europe, but in England is rather a local plant, abounding on high chalk downs and limestone pastures, mostly in Yorkshire, Berkshire, Oxford, and Suffolk, but seldom found in other situations and other districts in this country. It is also known as Pasque Flower, Wind Flower, Meadow Anemone, Passe Flower, Easter Flower.

 The Pulsatilla, which is of highly valuable modern curative use as a herbal simple, is obtained not only from the whole herb of A. pulsatilla, but also from A. pratensis, the Meadow Anemone, which is closely allied to the Pasque Flower, differing chiefly in having smaller flowers with deeper purple sepals, inflexed at the top. It grows in Denmark, Germany, and Italy, but not in England. It is recommended for certain diseases of the eye, like Pulsatilla, and is used in homeopathy, but has been considered somewhat dangerous. The whole plant has a strong acrid taste but is eaten by both sheep and goats, though cows and horses will not touch it. The leaves when bruised and applied to the skin raise blisters. A. patens, var. Nutalliana is also used for the same purpose as A. pulsatilla.

 In each case, the whole herb is collected, soon after flowering, and should be carefully preserved when dried; it deteriorates if kept longer than one year.

 Pulsatilla pratensis L. (8).Pulsatilla pratensis L.:
 Botanical description: The Pulsatilla pratensis L., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family(buttercup or crowfoot family) and Anemone genus, it is also known as "Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill.", "Reniform leaf Pulsatilla", "small pasque flower", or "Shen Ye Bai Tou Weng", herbaceous perennial plant, grows up to 40 cm high. Rhizomes cylindrical often branched at the top. 5 basal leaves, begin to develop at flowering, 8~16 cm long, long-handled; leaf-shaped kidney-shaped pentagons or nearly kidney-shaped, 2.5~4.5 cm long, 4.5~7 cm wide, basal wide heart-shaped, Middle lobes with short stems (1~4 mm in diameter.), or subsessile, broadly rhombic, proximal to basal part, 1~2 lobules, apiculate, narrowly trigonous or triangular-lanceolate, wide 2~3.5 mm, all lobes nearly sessile, nearly as large as central all-lobes, ranging from 2-parted, surface glabrous, abaxially white villous; petiole 5.5~12 cm long, hair. Scapes erect, same as petiole; involucre bell, 3.5~4.5 cm long, densely villous, tube 0.8~1.2 cm, lobes narrowly linear, 0.5~1.2 mm wide; pedicels villous, Fruit up to 27 cm; flowers erect, sepals blue-purple, oblong-ovate, ca. 3 cm, width 1 cm, glabrous inside, outside sparsely villous. Aggregate fruit ca. 5 cm in diameter; achenes nearly fusiform, ca. 5 mm, pilose, persistent style ca. 2.8~3 cm, adaxially spreading villous. The flowers are 2~3 cm long, pendulous, bell-like, the tepals with reflexed tips; flower color varies from purple in the north of the species' range to greenish-violet in the south. The flowers are hermaphrodite, and are pollinated by bees; its flowering period is from early to mid-spring.

 Pulsatilla pratensis L. Ecological environment: The Pulsatilla pratensis L., grows in mountain grass slope, at areas with an elevation of 1,100 meters above sea level, from near sea level in the north of the range, up to 2,100 meters in the south. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in Xinjiang and the north area of China. Also, it widely distributes in Eastern Europe, and northern Asia. This species was native to central and Eastern Europe, from southeast Norway and western Denmark, south and east to Bulgaria.

 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Bai Tou Weng:Chinese Pulsatilla Root or Radix Pulsatillae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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