Radix Gentianae(Chinese Gentian).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 05 Introduction: The Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [22] kinds of common TCM herbs, [53] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness are briefly introduced separately:

Radix Gentianae(Chinese Gentian).

 Gentiana manshurica Brief Introduction: The Herb Radix Gentianae is the dried root and rhizome of Gentiana manshurica Kitag., Gentiana scabra Bge., Gentiana triflora Pall., or Gentiana rigescens Franch.(Gentiana Tourn.L. genus, family Gentianaceae.), used to clear heat, dry dampness, and purge the liver and gallbladder fire for the treatment of (1).damp-heat in the liver and gallbladder with morbid leukorrhea, jaundice, or eczema, and (2).liver fire with headache, hypochondriac pain, deafness or convulsions. The herb is commonly known as Radix Gentianae, Chinese Gentian, Lónɡ Dǎn.

 Gentiana is a perennial herb indigenous to the alpine and sub-alpine pastures of central and Southern Europe. Ringed and forked, the thick wrinkled root is brown on the outside and yellow on the inside. The simple, erect, glabrous stem grows to a height of 120 cm, giving off opposite bluish-green elliptical leaves with prominent curved veins. Three to ten yellow flowers arise together in the axils of bowl-shaped bracts after the root is about ten years old. The fruit is an oblong, two-valved capsule.

 Gentiana Flower and Fruit: The flowers are yellow, terminal, pedicled, and axillary in cyme-like false whorls. The calyx is deeply divided into 2. The corolla is rotated and divided almost to the base into 5 or 6 lanceolate tips. There are 5 stamens with 8 mm long anthers and 1 superior ovary. The fruit is 6 cm long and capsule-shaped. The numerous seed is flat, oblong or round, with a membranous edge.

 Leaves, Stems, and Root: Yellow Gentian is a completely glabrous perennial plant that grows to 140 cm high. The rhizome has many heads, and the top of the rhizome can attain the thickness of an arm. The main root is taproot, which grows up to 1 meter long. The stem is round, unbranched, hollow, and grooved in the upper region to finger thickness. The leaves are elliptical, bluish-green, have strongly curved ribs and grow up to 30 cm long and 15 cm wide.

 ✵The herb Radix Gentianae (Chinese Gentian) is the dried root and rhizome of species (1).Gentiana manshurica Kitag., (2).Gentiana scabra Bge., (3).Gentiana triflora Pall., or (4).Gentiana rigescens Franch., they are plants of the Gentiana genus, the Gentianaceae family of the Gentianales order. These 4 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Gentiana manshurica Kitag. (1).Gentiana manshurica Kitag.:  It is commonly known as "Tiao Ye Long Dan", or row-shape leaf Gentiana. This species differs from Gentiana scabra Bge in that its leaves are thick, subleathery, sessile, upper leaves linear-lanceolate to linear, base obtuse, margin slightly curvaceous. 1 or 2 Flowers; Calyx lobes linear-lanceolate, longer than or as long as calyx tube; Corolla lobes apex acuminate.

 Gentiana manshurica Kitag. Ecological environment: It grows in grassland or wet areas of mountain slopes 110~1,100 meters above sea level. It is distributed in north China plain, northwest of China, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, and other areas.

 Trait identification: the rhizome of gentian is usually straight, tuberous or elongated, 0.5~1.5 cm, 4~7 mm in diameter, 2-16 tufted roots below, often less than 10. Root length is about 15 cm, diameter 2~4 mm; The surface is yellowish-brown or gray-brown, with twisted longitudinal wrinkles, upper fine horizontal lines are obvious, and a few protruding root marks.

 Gentiana scabra Bge. (2).Gentiana scabra Bge.:  It is commonly known as Long Dan or Gentiana. Perennial herb, 30~60 cm tall. Rhizome short, tufted with most slender roots, up to 30 cm long. Flower stems solitary, unbranched. Leaves opposite; Sessile; Lower leaves scaly, base united, 5~10 mm long, middle and upper leaves nearly leathery, leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2.5~7 cm long, 0.7~3 cm wide, apex acute or long acuminate, base cordate or rounded, surface dark green, underside pale, margin curvaceous, scabrous; Leaves 3~5 veins. Flowers numerous, fasciculate branchlets and leaf axils, without pedicels; Subinflorescence with 2 lanceolate or linear bracts, 2~2.5 cm long; Calyx campanulate, 2.5~3 cm long, apex 5-lobed, often outwardly reversed or spreading, irregular; Corolla tubular-campanulate, blue-purple, 4~5.5 cm long, sometimes throat with most yellow-green spots, corolla apex 5-lobed, lobes ovate, pleated triangular; 5 stamens, inserted in middle of tube, filaments wide at base; Ovary narrowly elliptic or oblong, 1~1.4 cm long, ovary stalk 1 cm long, style short, stigma 2-lobed. Capsule, oblong, sessile. Seeds numerous, brown, glossy, reticulate, with broad wings at both ends. Its flowering period is from August to September, fruiting from September to October.

 Gentiana scabra Bge. Ecological environment: It grows in the hillside grassland, roadside, river bank thicket and undergrowth meadow with an altitude of 200~1,700 meters. It is distributed in north China, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, and other areas, northwest area and other areas.

 Trait identification:rhizome more horizontal, long 0.5~3 cm, 3~8 mm in diameter, with multiple stem marks, more than 4~3 roots, often more than 20 roots, slender cylindrical roots, slightly twisted, 1~3 mm in diameter; Surface hoary or palm yellow color, upper horizontal grain is more obvious, lower part has longitudinal furrow and fine root mark. Brittle, easy to absorb moisture soft, cross-section yellow-brown, yellow-white wood point shape, ring row, central pulp department obvious. Slight smell, very bitter taste.

 Gentiana triflora Pall. (3).Gentiana triflora Pall.:  It is commonly known as "San Hua Long Dan", or Triple-Flower Gentiana, Gentiana Trifolium. This species differs from the first two species in that the upper and middle leaves are nearly leathery, linear-lanceolate to linear-linear, base rounded. 3 flowers, rarely 5; Calyx lobes narrowly triangular, shorter than calyx tube; Corolla lobes apex obtuse.

 Gentiana triflora Pall. Ecological environment: It grows in grasslands, glades and thickets at altitude of 440~950 meters above sea level. It is distributed in northeast China, and Hebei province.

 Trait identification: the rhizome of Gentiana Trifolium is mostly straight, 1~5 cm long, 0.5 cm in diameter. 7~1.5 cm, more than 4~30 roots, often more than 15 roots, root diameter is 1~6 mm; The surface is yellow and white. All horizontal lines are more obvious.

 Gentiana rigescens Franch. (4).Gentiana rigescens Franch.:  It is commonly known as "Dian Long Dan", Gentiana yunnanensis. Its different features from the first three are: rosette free, cauline leaves multiple pairs, type ii, lower leaves 2-4 pairs, scaly, middle-upper leaf blade ovate-oblong, obovate or ovate, base cuneate, margin slightly curvaceous. Flowers numerous, fasciculate branchlets apically capitate, sparse axillary, surrounded by uppermost bract-like leaf clusters; Calyx lobes irregular, 2 large, obovate-oblong, base narrowly compressed into claws; Stamen inserted on the lower part of the coronal tube. The seeds are yellowish-brown.

 Gentiana rigescens Franch. Ecological environment: It grows in thickets, undergrowth and valleys of hillside grassland at an elevation of 1,100~3,000 meters. It is distributed in provinces Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan, etc.

 Trait identification:the rhizome of gentiana yunnanensis is nodular, with 1~10 residual stems and 4~30 roots. The roots are spindly, slightly curved, with a diameter of 1~4 mm. The surface is light brown or tan; There is white wood core in the middle of the cross-section.


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