Introduction of Zhi Zi:Cape-jasmine Fruit or Fructus Gardeniae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 05 Introduction: The Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [22] kinds of common TCM herbs, [53] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness are briefly introduced separately:

 
Fructus Gardeniae(Cape-jasmine Fruit).

Cape-jasmine Fruit Pin Yin Name: Zhī Zi.
 English Name: Cape-jasmine Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Gardeniae.
 Property and flavor: cold, slight sour, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Fructus Gardeniae is the dried fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis(family Rubiaceae), used (1).to purge fire and calm the mind in cases of fever with fidgetiness and insomnia, and (2).to clear damp-heat from the liver and gallbladder in cases of acute icteric hepatitis, and to cool blood and counteract toxins in cases of bleeding, sores and ulcers. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Gardeniae, Cape-jasmine Fruit, Zhī Zi.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Gardeniae(Cape-jasmine Fruit) is the dried fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis., it is a plant of the Gardenia Genus, the Rubiaceae family of the Gentianales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.01 (1).Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.:
 Botanical description: The Gardenia jasminoides Ellis., is a plant of the Rubiaceae family and Gardenia genus, it is commonly known as "Cape Jasmine Fruit, Fruit of Cape Jasmine", or "Zhi Zi", shrubs, 0.3~3 meters tall; twigs often short-haired, cylindrical branches, gray. Leaves opposite, or 3 whorled, leathery, thin paper, leaf-shaped, usually oblong lanceolate, obovate oblong, obovate or elliptic, 3~25 cm long, wide 1.5~8 cm, apex acuminate, abruptly acuminate or shortly pointed and blunt, base cuneate or shortly pointed, often glabrous on both surfaces, light green above, darker below; lateral veins 8~15 pairs, raised below, flat above; petiole 0.2~1 cm; stipules membranous.

 Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.02 Flowers fragrant, usually 1-flowered on branchlets, 3~5 mm long; pedicels obconical or ovate, 8~25 mm long, longitudinally angled, tubelike, inflated, apically 5~8-lobed, usually 6-lobed, lobes lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 10~30 mm long, 1~4 mm wide, growing as a result, persistent; corolla white or milky yellow, salverform, sparsely throated Hair, crown tube narrowly cylindrical, 3~5 cm long, 4~6 mm wide, 5~8-lobed to the top, usually 6-lobed, lobes broadly spreading, obovate or obovate-oblong, 1.5~4 cm long, Width 0.6~2.8 cm; filaments extremely short, anthers linear, 1.5~2.2 cm long, extending; styles thick, ca. 4.5 cm, stigmas spindle-shaped, extending, 1~1.5 cm long, 3~7 mm wide, Ovary approximately 3 mm in diameter, yellow, smooth.

 Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.03 Fruit ovate, subglobose, elliptic or oblong, yellow or orange-red, 1.5~7 cm long, 1.2~2 cm in diam., winged longitudinal ribs 5~9, persistent calyx as long as 4 cm at top, 6 mm wide; seeds mostly, flat, nearly round and slightly angular, about 3.5 mm long and 3 mm wide. Its flowering period is from March to July, fruiting from May to February of the following year.

 Growth characteristics: The Gardenia jasminoides Ellis prefers a warm and humid climate, the field with good drainage, fertile loose, and moist sandy loam or clay loam is preferred.

 Characters of herbs: Fruit obovate, elliptic or oblong, 1.4~3.5 cm long, 0.8~1.8 cm in diameter. Surface reddish-brown or red-yellow, slightly shiny, 6~8 winged longitudinal edges, 1 longitudinal vein between each two-winged edge, apex with dark yellow-green residual calyx, apex with 6~8 elongated lobes, segments 1~2.5 cm long, 2~3 mm wide, often broken, the base of fruit contracted into a stalk, end with round stalk trace. The peel is thin and crisp, the inner surface bright yellow or reddish yellow. Glossy, with a raised false septum of 2~3 strips. Broken face bright yellow, seed majority, oblate elliptic or oblate moment is round, gather into ball mass, brownish red, the surface has fine and dense concave small point; Endosperm cutin; Embryo elongate, cotyledons cordate 2. Slightly sour and bitter taste. Thin, full, red and yellow skin is preferred.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.choleretic effect: water extract and alcohol extract saps of Fructus Gardeniae are given orally to rabbits, and did not affect bile derived from the bile duct and solid substances. However, when the same preparation is injected into rabbits, bile secretion began to increase in 15~30 minutes and lasted for more than 1 hour. ②.Sedative and antihypertensive effects: Gardenia fruit water decoction and alcohol extract have long-lasting antihypertensive effects on anesthetized or unanesthetized cats, rats, and rabbits, regardless of oral or intraperitoneal injection. Intravenous injection reduces blood pressure rapidly and maintains a short time, and its hypotensive site seems to be in the parasympathetic center of the brain. ③.Antimicrobial effect: Gardenia water saps have an inhibitory effect on a variety of fungi in vivo, such as achorion schoenleinii, Epidermophyton inguinale, Epidermophyton rubrum, and so on. Its water decoction of 15 mg/ml can kill leptospirosis; In vitro, Gardenia Fructus decoction could stop the activity of Schistosoma, the decoction has no inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria.

 Medicinal efficacy: Purge fire and eliminate vexation, clear heat, clear heat and diuretic, clear heat and remove dampness through diuresis, cool blood, detoxification. It is indicated for pyrexia and vexed, fever vexed and insomnia, jaundice, jaundice and red urine, dampness-heat jaundice, gonorrhea, stranguria, consumptive thirst, bloody stranguria with pain, blood heat and vomiting blood, nosebleed, dysentery with bloody stool, hematuria(bloody urine), red eyes and swelling pain, red eyes, red eyes of liver fire, sore throat, headache, sores of mouth and tongue, fire and toxic heat ulcers, pyretix carbuncles and ulcer, swollen poison; External treatment contusion pain, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Gardeniae(Zhī Zi): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Gardeniae(Zhī Zi)
TCM Books: Internally:6~9 grams.Externally:raw herb proper amount, grinded into powder and apply stick.root 1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams)(CP), Internally:water decoction, 2~4 qian(about 6~12 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:grinded into fine powder and apply stick(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder and apply, or apply stick(CHMM).


 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Zhi Zi:Cape-jasmine Fruit or Fructus Gardeniae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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