Introduction of Shan Dou Gen:Subprostrate Sophora Root or Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins: an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 05 Introduction: The Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins are known including:,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [28] kinds of common TCM herbs, [43] kinds of related plant species, [3] fungus species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins are briefly introduced separately:

 
Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis(Subprostrate Sophora Root).

Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis Pin Yin Name: Shān Dòu Gēn.
 English Name: Subprostrate Sophora Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter, toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis is the dried root and rhizome of Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep.(family Leguminosae), used for the treatment of sore throat and gingivitis. The herb is commonly known as Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis, vietnamese Sophora Root, Shān Dòu Gēn.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis(vietnamese Sophora Root) as the dried root and rhizome of (1). Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep.(Sophora Genus,Leguminosae family,Rosales order.),(2). Menispermum dahuricum DC.(Menispermum genus,Menispermaceae family,Ranales order.). These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. (1).Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Sophora sudpros-trata Chun et T.Chen., or Róu Zhī Huái, Soft-Branch Sophora, Guǎng Dòu Gēn. Shrub, 1~2 meters tall, covered with gray trichomes. Roots branched, cylindrical, 30 cm long, yellowish-brown outside, bitter. Stem erect or prostrate, branches few, weaker. Compound leaves singular feathery alternate, petiole 5~17 cm long; Lobules 11~21, ovate-oblong, 1~2.5 cm long, 5~15 mm wide, apex acute, base rounded, entire, upper plant pubescent, underside densely grayish-brown pubescent. Flowering in late spring, racemes terminal or axillary, up to 15 cm, nearly 20 flowers, pedicels about 1 cm long; Calyx broad bell-shaped, vegetables hairy, calyx teeth triangular; Corolla flecked yellowishly, ca. 7 mm flag nearly round, concave head, with distinct claws, stamens 10, detached; Ovary densely villous. Pod cylindrical, about 5 cm long, pod nodes between the contraction and a string of spherical, 3~5 seeds.

 Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. Ecological environment: The plant grows on the slope of the stone gap, thicket forest garden. The plant distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, and southwest areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Sophora tonkinensis is not strict to climate and soil, but it is better to grow in a warm environment and loose and fertile soil.

 Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. Characters of herbs: Dry roots are irregularly nodular, often with residual stem base or trace at the top and several roots below. Roots long cylindrical, sometimes branched, slightly curved, 10~36 cm long, 0.3~1 cm in diameter; Surface brown to black-brown, longitudinal wrinkles and transverse long slightly protruding lenticels. Hard to break, cross-section slightly flat, light brown, and can be seen ring cambium, the center of the medullary. The weak smell, bitter taste. With thick and strong piece big, more powder content one is better.

 Pharmacological actions: The infusing liquid of the herb has an anti-cancer effect, the water extract can inhibit delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Its total alkali can increase myocardial contractility and coronary flow significantly. The component matrine and oxymatrine can enhance the peripheral leukocytes of rabbits, and total matrine has an inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Vibrio cholerae, and dermatophytes. Besides, the herb still has an anti-inflammatory, liver-protective effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxify, relieve sore throat, detumescence(reduce swelling), relaxing the bowels. It is indicated for fire poison accumulation, sore throat and swelling, acute pharyngitis, tonsillitis, gingivitis, lung heat and cough, dampness-heat jaundice, carbuncle swelling, constipation, etc.

 Administration of Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis(Shān Dòu Gēn): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis(Shān Dòu Gēn)
TCM Books: Internally:3~6 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams),or extract juice.Externally:mouthwash or mashed and apply stick(DCTM).


 Menispermum dahuricum DC. (2).Menispermum dahuricum DC.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Biān Fú Gé(means "Bat-shape vine"). Grassy, deciduous vine, rhizome brown, vertical, stems from lateral buds located near the top, annual stems slender, striate, glabrous. Leaves papery or submembranous, contour usually oblate, ca. 3~12 cm long and wide, margin 3-9 angled or 3-9 lobed, rarely sub whole, base cordate to subtruncated, both surfaces glabrous, glaucous below; Palmate veins 9~12, 3~5 of which extend toward base very slender, all raised abaxially. Petiole 3~10 cm or slightly longer, striate.

 Menispermum dahuricum DC. Panicles solitary or sometimes twin, with slender general pedicels, flowers several to more than 20, flowers densely dispersed into slightly, pedicels slender, 5~10 mm long; Male flowers: 4~8 sepals, membranous, greenish-yellow, oblanceolate to obovate-elliptic, 1.4~3.5 mm long, ascending from outside to inside; 6~8 petals or as many as 9~12, fleshy, concave into a pouch, with short claws, 1.5~2.5 mm long; Stamens usually 12, sometimes slightly more or less, 1.5~3 mm long; Female flowers: 6~12 stamens, ca. 1 mm long, pistil clusters with stipitate ca.5~1 mm long. Stone fruit purple-black; Stone ca. 10 mm wide, ca. 8 mm high, base recurved ca. 3 mm deep. Its flowering period is from June to July, fruiting from August to September.

 Menispermum dahuricum DC. Ecological environment: The plant grows on the hillside forest edge, field edge, roadside, and gully thicket or climbing on the rock. It grows in hillside forest margins, thickets, field edges, roadsides, and gravel beaches, or climbs on rocks. It prefers a warm and cool environment and is most suitable for growth at 25~30 ℃. Growth stagnates at 5 ℃. Soil requirements are not strict, but to deep soil, good drainage under the slope loam or sandy loam is appropriate. The plant distributes in most areas of China, mainly in north, west-north areas.

 
 
Rhizoma Menispermi(Asiatic Moonseed Rhizome).

 Asiatic Moonseed Rhizome Brief Introduction: The Herb Rhizoma Menispermi is the dried rhizome of Menispermum dauricum DC.(family Menispermaceae), used in a similar way to Vietnamese sophora root.

 ✵Common herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Menispermi(Asiatic Moonseed Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of (1). Menispermum dahuricum DC.(Menispermum genus, Menispermaceae family, Ranales order.). It is commonly known as Běi Dòu Gēn. This commonly used species is introduced in the above entry under title "Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis(vietnamese Sophora Root)".

 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Shan Dou Gen:Subprostrate Sophora Root or Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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