Radix Achyranthis Asperae(Native Achyranthes Root).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins:an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 05 Introduction: The Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins are known including:,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [28] kinds of common TCM herbs, [43] kinds of related plant species, [3] fungus species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins are briefly introduced separately:

Radix Achyranthis Asperae(Native Achyranthes Root).

 Radix Achyranthis Asperae Brief Introduction: The herb Radix Achyranthis Asperae is the dried root of Achyranthes aspera L. and other related species(family Amaranthaceae), used for treating sore throat and diphtheria. The herb is commonly known as Radix Achyranthis Asperae, Native Achyranthes Root, Tǔ Niú Xī.

 ✵Common herbal classics defined the herb Radix Achyranthis Asperae(Native Achyranthes Root) as the dried root of (1).Achyranthes bidentata Blume.,(2).Achyranthes longifolia.,(3).Achyranthes aspera L.(4).Achyranthes aspera var. indica. They are plants of the Achyranthes L. genus, Amaranthaceae family, Centrospermae order. These 4 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Achyranthes bidentata Blume (1).Achyranthes bidentata Blume.:  It is commonly known as Ye Niú Xī. The overground part of the wild plant is similar to the cultivated plant in form as perennial herbs, with a height of 70~120 cm. Root cylindrical, 5~10 mm in diameter, khaki. Stems angular or square, green or purplish, white appressed or spreading pilose, or subglabrous, branches opposite, nodes are swollen. Leaves opposite; Petiole 5~30 mm; Leaf blade membranous, elliptic or elliptic lanceolate, 5~12 cm long, 2~6 cm wide, apex acuminate, base broadly cuneate, entire, pilose on both surfaces. Spikes nape and axillary, 3-5 cm long, reflexed after flowering; Pedicels 1~2 cm long, white pilose; Flowers numerous, dense, 5 mm long; Bracts broadly ovate, 2~3 mm long, apex long acuminate; Bracteoles spiny, 2.5~3 mm long, apex curved, base with 1 ovoid membranous lobule on each side, ca. 1 mm long. Tepals lanceolate, 3~5 mm long, glossy, apex acute, 1 midrib; Stamen length 2~2.5 mm; Stamen apex flat round, slightly truncated serrate. Utricles oblong, 2~2.5 mm long, tawny, smooth. Seeds oblong, 1 mm long, tawny. It is flowering from July to September, fruiting from September to October. The subsurface part has no obvious taproots, conus root or cluster fibrous root.

 Achyranthes bidentata Blume Ecological environment: It grows under the forest of the hillside 200~1,750 meters above the sea level, beside the plain, hill, roadside, ridge and house. Except for northeast, it is widely distributed in other areas of China.

 Trait identification: the rhizome is terete, 1~3 cm long, 5~10 mm in diameter, grayish brown, with basal residue at the upper end, surrounded by most roots of varying thickness. Roots long cylindrical, slightly curved, about 15 cm below, up to 4 mm in diameter; The surface is grayish brown with fine longitudinal wrinkles. Soft, easily broken after penetration, cross-section yellow-brown, visible as a ring-shaped hash of vascular bundles. Slightly smell, taste slightly sweet.

 Achyranthes longifolia Makino (2).Achyranthes longifolia.:  It is commonly known as Liu Ye Niú Xī, Achyranthes longifolia Makino, or Willow-Leaf Achyranthes. Herbs perennial, 1 meter high. Six meters. Stem erect, square, nodes enlarged; Leaves opposite, leaf blade lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, ca. 4.5~15 cm, about 0.5 to 3.6 cm, apex and base acuminate, entire, green above, often purplish-red below. Inflorescence axillary or terminal; Most; 1 bracts, apex dentate; Bracteoles 2, spiny, purplish red, base with 1 ovoid lobule on each side, ca. 0.6 mm; 5 perianth, green, linear, 3-veined; 5 stamens, lower filaments connate, staminodes square, apex with inconspicuous teeth; Style ca. 2 mm. The utricles are long and ovate. The flowering period is from July to October, fruiting period is from October to November.

 Achyranthes longifolia Makino This species is similar to oxiculus, distinguished by leaf blade lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, 10~20 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, tip; Bracteoles acicular, 3.5 mm long, base with 2-auricular flakes, only ciliate; Staminodes square, apically toothless. Its flower period is from September to November.

 Ecological environment: It grows on the hillside, ditch edge, roadside. It is distributed in Guangdong, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang of China.

 Achyranthes longifolia Makino Trait identification:the rhizome is short and thick, 2~6 cm long, 1~1.5 cm in diameter. Roots 4~9, twisted, length 10~20 cm, diameter 0.4~1.2 cm, tapering down. Surface grayish yellow-brown, with fine longitudinal wrinkles and fibrous root after removal of traces. Hard and slightly elastic, easily broken, cross-section skin pale grayish brown, slightly bright, most of the dotted vascular bundles. Slight smell, taste light sweet after astringent.

 Achyranthes aspera L (3).Achyranthes aspera L.:  It is commonly known as Cu Mao Niú Xī, or Crude-Hair Achyranthes. Herbs perennial, 20~120 cm tall. Root slender, diameter 3~5 mm, khaki. Stem four-prismatic, pilose, nodes slightly enlarged, branches opposite. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 5~15 mm; Leaf blade papery, broadly obovate or elliptic-oblong, 1.5~7 cm long, 0.4~4 cm wide, vermilleate obtuse, acute, base cuneate or rounded, entire or undulate, densely hirsute on both sides. Inflorescences terminal, erect, 10-30 cm long, reflexed after flowering; Pedicels angular, stout, hard, densely white or spreading pilose; Flowers 3~4 mm long, sparsely growing; Bracts lanceolate, 3~4 mm long, apex long acuminate; Bracteoles spiny, 2.5~4.5 mm long, hard, shiny, often purplish, 1 membranous wing on each side of base, 1.5~2 mm long, entire, all attached to spines, but easily detachable. Perianth lanceolate, 3.5~5 mm long, acuminate, stiffened and acute after flowering, with 1 vein; Stamen length 2.5~3.5 mm; Staminodes apex truncate or finely crenate, with branched fringelike long margin hairs. Follicular fruit ovate, 2.5~3 mm long. Seeds ovate, not compressed, ca. 2 mm long, brown. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from October.

 Achyranthes aspera L Ecological environment: Like warm climate, not resistant to cold, north cultivation, winter need to be cold. The soil grows well on sandy soil and is not suitable for clay culture. It is distributed in south China, southwest and Jiangxi, Taiwan, Hubei, and other areas.

 Trait identification:is the same as Achyranthes longifolia.

 Achyranthes aspera var. indica (4).Achyranthes aspera var. indica:  It is commonly known as Dun Ye Tu Niú Xī, or Round-Leaf Achyranthes. Stems densely white or yellow villous. Leaf blade obovate, 1.5~6.5 cm long, 2~4 cm wide, apex rounded and obtuse, often convex, base broadly cuneate, margin undulate, both surfaces densely pilose.

 Achyranthes aspera var. indica Ecological environment: It is distributed in Taiwan island, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangdong and other areas of China. It is also distributed in Sri Lanka.


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