Introduction of Lian Qiao:Weeping Forsythia Fruit or Fructus Forsythiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins: an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.

 
Fructus Forsythiae(Weeping Forsythia Fruit).

Fructus Forsythiae Pin Yin Name: Lián Qiáo.
 English Name: Weeping Forsythia Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Forsythiae.
 Property and flavor: slight cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Forsythiae is the dried fruit of weeping forsthia, Forsythia suspensa(Thunb.) Vahl(family Oleaceae), often used together with honeysuckle flower (1).to clear heat, counteract toxins and dissipate nodulation in cases of boils, sores and abscesses, and (2).to disperse wind-heat for wind-heat afflictions and warm diseases at the early stage. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Forsythiae, Weeping Forsythia Fruit, Lián Qiáo.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Forsythiae(Weeping Forsythia Fruit) is the dried fruit of (1). Forsythia suspensa(Thunb.) Vahl, it is a plant of the Forsythia genus, the Oleaceae(under Lamiales) family of the Lamiales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Forsythia suspensa (1).Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.)Vahl.:
 Botanical description: The Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl., is a plant of the Oleaceae family and Forsythia Vahl genus, it is commonly known as "Forsythia suspensa", or "Lian Qiao", deciduous shrubs. Branches spreading or pendulous, brown, tan or yellowish-brown, branchlets yellowish or grayish brown, slightly 4-angled, sparsely lenticels, internodes hollow, joints with solid medullary. Leaves usually single leaves, or 3-lobed to 3-foliolate, leaf blade ovate, broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate to elliptic, 2~10 cm long, 1.5~5 cm wide, apex acute, base rounded Wide wedge-shaped to wedge-shaped, except for the edge of the leaf edge with sharp serrations or coarse serrations, dark green above, pale yellow-green below, both sides glabrous; petiole length 0.8~1.5 cm, glabrous.

 Forsythia suspensa Flowers usually solitary or as many as 2 to several borne in leaf axils, opening before leaves open; pedicels 5~6 mm long; calyx green, lobes oblong or oblong-elliptic, long 5~7 mm, apex Blunt or acute, margin with lashes, nearly as long as corolla tube; corolla yellow, lobes obovate-oblong or oblong, 1.2~2 cm long, 6~10 mm wide; 5~7 mm long at pistil In flowers, the stamens are 3~5 mm long, and in stamens 6~7 mm long, the pistol is about 3 mm long.

 Fruit ovoid, ovate-elliptic or oblong, 1.2~2.5 cm long, 0.6~1.2 cm wide, apex calyx acuminate, surface sparsely lenticels; fruit stems 0.7~1.5 cm long. It is flowering from March to April and fruiting from July to September.

 Ecological environment: The shrub grows in thickets, sparse forests, and bushes on hillsides. It mainly distributes in the area of the Yellow River, the area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The Forsythia suspensa prefers warm and humid climate. Strong adaptability, cold tolerance, poor quality. Love lots of sunshine. Soil requirements are not strict, hummus and sandy gravel soil can grow.

 Characters of herbs: Fruit long ovate to ovate, slightly oblate, 1~2 cm long 0.5 cm in diameter 0.5~1. 3 cm. "LaoQiao" from the apex dehiscence more, slightly outwardly reverse curve or split into two, the base has fruit stalk or its break mark, the outer surface of fruit petal is yellow and brown, have irregular longitudinal furrow and most protruding flaxen tumour point, the base tumor point is less, the center has 1 longitudinal concave groove; The inner surface is yellowish-brown, smooth, slightly shiny, with a mediastinum in the center. "Qing Qiao" is not dehiscent more, surface green-brown, tumor point is less, the base has fruit stalk more, inside seed majority, lanceolate form, slight curve, the length is about 0.7 cm, about 0.2 cm wide, brown surface, one side has a narrow wing. Slightly fragrant, bitter taste. "Qing Qiao" with color green, not cracking is better; "Lao Qiao" with the color yellow, petal big, shell thick is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antibacterial effect: concentrate decoction of Fructus forsythiae has an antibacterial effect in vitro, which can inhibit Typhoid bacillus, Paratyphoid bacillus, Escherichia coli, Dysentery bacillus, Diphtheria bacillus, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and so on. The antimicrobial activity of forsythia in vitro was similar to that of honeysuckle, and it is the main antimicrobial component of yinqiao powder. ②.Other effects: fructus forsythiae can inhibit the emetic effect of pigeons of intravenous injection with digitalgia and reduce the times of vomiting, but it does not change the incubation period of vomiting. The antiemetic effect of Forsythia is similar to that of chlorpromazine 2 hours after injection.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat, detoxify, dissipate stagnation and detumescence(reduce swelling). It is indicated for ulcer, scrofulous, acute mastitis, erysipelas, macules, wind-heat colds, warm disease, onset of warm disease, fever of warm disease, warm and heat enter into the Ying system, high fever and polydipsia, coma and macula, carbuncles sores swelling poison, ulcer, scrofula, galls, pharyngitis, leaching, pyretic stranguria and urodialysis.

 Administration of Fructus Forsythiae(Lián Qiáo): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Forsythiae(Lián Qiáo)
TCM Books: Internally:6~15 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:wash with water decoction(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 6~15 grams, or prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Lian Qiao:Weeping Forsythia Fruit or Fructus Forsythiae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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