Flos Lonicerae(Honeysuckle Flower).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins: an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 05 Introduction: The Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins are known including:,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [28] kinds of common TCM herbs, [43] kinds of related plant species, [3] fungus species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins are briefly introduced separately:

 
Flos Lonicerae(Honeysuckle Flower).

 Honeysuckle Flower Brief Introduction: The herb Flos Lonicerae is the dried flower-bud of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Lonicera hypoglauca Miq., Lonicera confusa DC.or Lonicera dasystyla Rehd.(family Caprifoliaceae), used to clear heat, counteract toxins, and disperse wind-heat for treating (1).boils, sores and abscesses, (2).wind-heat afflictions and warm diseases at the early stage, and (3).toxic-heat dysentery.The herb is commonly known as Flos Lonicerae, Honeysuckle Flower, Jīn Yín Huā.

 ✵The herb Flos Lonicerae(Honeysuckle Flower) is the dried flower-bud of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Lonicera hypoglauca Miq., Lonicera confusa DC.or Lonicera dasystyla Rehd., they are plants of the Lonicera L. genus, the Caprifoliaceae(honeysuckle family) family of the Dipsacales order.

 Lonicera japonica Thunb. (1).Lonicera japonica Thunb.: The Lonicera japonica Thunb., is a plant of the Caprifoliaceae family and Lonicera genus, it is commonly known as "Ren Dong", perennial semi-evergreen winding wood vine, up to 9 m. Stem hollow, much branched, young branches densely pubescent and glandular hairs. Leaves opposite; petiole 4~10 cm, densely pubescent; leaf papery, leaf blade ovate, oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2.5~8 cm long, 1~5.5 cm wide, apex short, gradually pointed or obtuse, base rounded or nearly heart-shaped, entire, both surfaces and edges pubescent. Flowers paired axillary, pedicel densely pubescent and glandular trichomes; pedicels usually solitary in branchlets above leaf axils, as long as or shorter than opposite ones, arising in lower part 2~4 cm, densely pubescent and 2 glandular bracts, leaflike, broadly ovate or elliptic, ca. 3.5 mm, coat or subglabrous; bracteoles ca. 1 mm, short hairs and glandular hairs; calyx short, calyx tube ca. 2 mm, glabrous, 5-toothed, lobes ovate-triangular or long triangular, apex tip, outer and margin densely covered; corolla lip-shaped, 3~5 cm long, upper lip 4-lobed, corolla tube slender, And glandular trichomes, upper lip 4-lobed apex obtuse, lower lip banded and curved, flowers initially white, 2-3d yellowish-golden; 5 stamens, inserted in corolla inner tube near mouth, out of corolla; 1 pistil, ovary inferior, style slender, extending. Berry spherical, 6~7 mm in diameter, blue-black when mature, shiny. Its flowering period is from April to July, fruiting from June to November.

 Lonicera japonica Thunb. Semi-evergreen vine; young branches clean red-brown, densely yellow-brown, carried out hard straight rough hair, glandular hairs and pubescent, often without hair. Leaves papery, ovate to oblong-ovate, sometimes ovate-lanceolate, thinly ovate or obovate, rarely 1 to several obtuse, 3~5~9.5 cm long, apical or Acuminate, rarely obtuse, rounded or slightly concave, base rounded or subacute, with rough margin, dark green above, below greenish, upper part of leaflets usually densely covered with short hairs on both surfaces, often smooth on lower leaves Hairy and grayish green below; petiole 4~8 mm, densely pubescent.

 Lonicera japonica Thunb. Pedicel usually solitary in branchlets above leaf axils, as long as petiole or slightly shorter, below as long as 2~4 cm, densely pubescent and mixed with glandular hairs; bracts large, leaflike, ovate to Elliptic, 2~3 cm, pubescent or sometimes glabrous on both surfaces; bract apically rounded or truncate, ca. 1 mm, 1/2~4/5 of calyx tube, with short hairs and glandular hairs; calyx tube ca. 2 mm, glabrous, calyx teeth ovate-triangular or long triangular, apically pointed but long-haired, densely hairy outside and margin; corolla white, sometimes basally to sunny side Reddish, yellowish laterally, long 2~6 cm, lip-shaped, tube slightly longer than labellum, rarely subequal, outer ones reflexed to develop or semi- Hair, upper lip lobes apically blunt, lower lip banded and recurved; stamens and styles higher than corolla.

 Fruit round, 6~7 mm in diam., Blue-black when cooked, shiny; seeds ovoid or elliptic, brown, ca. 3 mm, middle with 1 raised ridge with shallow transverse grooves on both sides. Flowering from April to June (autumn is also often flowering), fruit ripening from October to November.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in thin forests on hillsides, bushes, villages, roadside, etc. The plant distributes in the east, central and south, southwest areas of China.

 Trait identification:thin, slightly curved, 1.3~5.5 cm long, upper diameter 2~3 mm. Surface pale yellow or yellowish-brown, long storage color become dark, dense hair or long glandular hair; Calyx minute, green, calyx tube globose, ca. 1 mm long, glabrous, apex 5-lobed, calyx teeth ovate-triangular, hairy; Corolla tubular, upper part slightly dehiscent into two-lipped, sometimes open flowers visible; 5 stamens, attached to tube wall; 1 pistil, with a slender style. Fragrance, taste sweet and bitter.

 Lonicera confusa Sweet DC. (2).Lonicera confusa (Sweet) DC.: The Lonicera confusa (Sweet) DC., is a plant of the Caprifoliaceae family and Lonicera genus, it is commonly known as "Hua Nan Ren Dong", or "Ren Dong of South China", "Da Jin Yin Hua(Big Honeysuckle Flower)", "Shan Jin Yin Hua(Mountain Honeysuckle Flower)", "Tu Yin Hua(Native Honeysuckle Flower)", "Zuo Zhuan Teng(Left Swirling Vine)", semi-evergreen vines; leaf blade papery, ovate to ovate-oblong, 3~7 cm long, apically pointed or slightly obtuse and shortly pointed, base rounded, truncate or cordate, Both sides have short bristles when young, when old above become glabrous; petiole 5~10 mm long. Flowers fragrant, axillary or double-flowered or lateral spur-set into a short constrictive 2~4 racemes, with obvious total bracts; total peduncle 2~8 mm long; bracts lanceolate, Long 1~2 mm; bracteoles ovate or ovate, ca. 1 mm, apically obtuse, rimmed; calyx tube length 1.5~2 mm, shortly brown; calyx teeth lanceolate or ovate-triangular, Length 1 mm, outer densely pubescent; corolla white, yellowish laterally, 3.2~5 cm long, lip-shaped, tube straight or sometimes slightly curved, Inner surface pilose, slightly shorter than the tube lip; stamens and styles are extended, slightly longer than the lip, filaments glabrous. Fruit black, oval or suborbicular, 6~10 mm long. Its flowering period is from April to May, and sometimes flowering the second time from September to October, fruit ripening in October.

 The difference between this species from the Lonicera japonica Thunb. is: young branchlets, petioles, total pedicel, bracts, bracteoles were gray-yellow curly pubescent, and sparsely covered by the micro-glandular hair; branchlets reddish-brown or near-brown. Leaf-blade ovate to ovate-oblong, both sides were short-haired when young, old above the hairless. Bracts lanceolate, 1~2 mm long; apex bractlets ciliate; calyx tube pilose. Fruit black. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruit mature in October.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on hills, hillsides, thickets, plains, roadsides, or river cliffs. The plant mainly distributes in the Zhujiang river area and Hainan Island of China.

 Trait identification: flower buds 1.3~5 cm long, 0.5~2 mm in diameter, reddish-brown or gray-brown, inverted short hair; Calyx teeth and calyx tube are densely covered with pale white or pale yellow hairs. Ovary hairy.

 Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. (3).Lonicera hypoglauca Miq.: The Lonicera hypoglauca Miq., is a plant of the Caprifoliaceae family and Lonicera genus, it is commonly known as "Gu Xian Ren Dong", Deciduous vine; young branchlets, petioles, below and above leaves and midvein and pedicels all densely yellowish brown pubescent with curved upper ends, sometimes with rough hairs. Leaves papery, ovate to ovate-oblong, 6~11.5 cm long, apically acuminate or pointed, base suborbicular or cordate, sometimes pinkish green below, with or without shank Stalk yellow to orange-red mushroom-shaped gland; petiole 5~12 mm long.

 Double flowers singularly to many flowers born in lateral short branches, or in the top of the branchlets set into a total shape, the total pedicel than the petiole short or sometimes longer; bracts stripy lanceolate, with the calyx tube a few times longer outside Bracteoles ovate or ovate, apex obtuse, rarely ovate-lanceolate and apical, ca. 1/3 as long as calyx tube, ciliate hair; calyx tube glabrous Calyx teeth triangular-lanceolate, 1/2~2/3 as long as tube, rimmed; corolla white, sometimes pale, later yellow, 3.5~4 cm, lip-shaped, Tube slightly longer than labellum, sparsely pubescent outside, often with subsessile or shortly stalked glands; stamens and styles slightly longer, glabrous. Fruit ripe black, suborbicular, sometimes with white powder, ca. 7~8 mm in diam. Seeds pale brownish, oval, central grooved and ridged raised, lateral grooves on both sides, ca. 4 mm. It is flowering from April to May or June, fruit ripening from October to November.

 The difference between this species Lonicera hypoglauca Miq and the above two species is: the yellow-to-orange mushroom-shaped gland that is sometimes pinkish green with or without a short handle below the leaf. Bracts linear-lanceolate, nearly as long as calyx tube, shortly brown and ciliate outside; corolla white, sometimes with pale blush, later golden yellow, sparsely exostatically exserted outside, and often absent Stalked or shortly stalked glandular. Fruit sometimes white powder. Its flowering period is from April to June, fruit ripening from October to November.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in thickets or sparse forests at an altitude of 200~700~1500 meters. The plant mainly distributes in the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Trait identification: flower buds are 1~5 cm long, 0.8~2 mm in diameter, yellow-brown or cinnamon brown; Calyx tube glabrous, calyx teeth hairy; Corolla outer glabrous or wide tube with a few inverted microvolt hairs, glandular hairs.

 Lonicera fuluotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng. (4).Lonicera fuluotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng.: The Lonicera fuluotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng., is a plant of the Caprifoliaceae family and Lonicera genus, it is commonly known as "Huang He Mao Ren Dong", or "Yellow Brown Hair Lonicera", vines; young shoots, petioles, leaf below, total pedicel, bracts, bracteoles, and calyx teeth are densely carried or curved brown hair, young branches and leaves on both sides also scattered orange short Gland hair. Winter buds have about 4 pairs of scales. Leaves papery, ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 3~8~11 cm long, apically acuminate, base rounded, shallowly cordate or sub truncate, sparsely strigose above, Midrib hair denser; petiole 5~7 mm long. Double flowers arranged in axillary or terminal short racemes, peduncles up to 1 cm; total pedicels ca. 2 mm, lower support with small ones 1; bracts subulate, 5~7 mm long; bracteoles Ovate to strip-lanceolate, ca. 1/2 as long as calyx tube; calyx tube obovate-elliptic, ca. 2 mm, glabrous, calyx rack-shaped lanceolate, 2~3 mm long; corolla first white-yellowish, 3~3.5 cm long, liplike, tube slightly shorter than lip, outer densely yellowish-brown hair and short glandular hair carried, upper lip lobes oblong, ca. 8 mm, Lower lip ca. 1.8 cm; stamens and styles higher than corolla, glabrous; stigma suborbicular, ca. 1 mm in diam. The fruit is unknown in details. Its flowering period is from June to July.

 The difference between this species Lonicera fuluotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng. and the above three species is that: the young branches, petioles, below the leaves, the total pedicels, bracts, bracteoles, and calyx teeth are densely formed or curved yellow-brown felt off rough, long hair More than 2 mm, young shoots, and leaves scattered on both sides of the orange-red short glandular hair. Leaf-blade papery, ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate. Bracts subulate; bracteoles ovate to linear-lanceolate; inflorescences bracteate below leaves; corolla and bracts both shorter, corolla densely yellowish-brown abaxially exserted and spreading shortly glandular hairs. Its flowering period is from June to July.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in the shrubbery or thin forest beside hillside rock at an altitude of 850~1,300 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in Guangxi, Yunnan of China.

 Trait identification: the flower buds with yellow-brown hair are about 3.5 cm long, brownish-yellow or yellow-green. Calyx tube brownish yellow or grayish-green, calyx teeth hairy; The corolla is covered with short coarse tawny hair.

 
 
Caulis Lonicerae(Honeysuckle Stem).

 Honeysuckle Stem Brief Introduction: The Herb Caulis Lonicerae is the dried stem and branch of Lonicera japonica Thunb.(family Caprifoliaceae), with actions similar to those of honeysuckle flower, but more frequently used to clear heat from the meridians and collaterals for treating acute rheumatic arthritis.

 ✵The herb Caulis Lonicerae(Honeysuckle Stem) is the dried stem and branch of Lonicera japonica Thunb., it is a plant of the Lonicera L. genus, the Caprifoliaceae(honeysuckle family) family of the Dipsacales order.

 
 

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