Introduction of Jin Deng Long:Franchet Groundcherry Fruit or Calyx seu Fructus Physalis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins: an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.

 
Calyx seu Fructus Physalis(Franchet Groundcherry Fruit).

Franchet Groundcherry Fruit Pin Yin Name: Jǐn Dēnɡ Lóng.
 English Name: Franchet Groundcherry Fruit.
 Latin Name: Calyx seu Fructus Physalis.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Calyx seu Fructus Physalis is the dried persistent calyx or with the fruit of winter cherry, Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii(Mast.)Makino(family Solanaceae), used chiefly for treating sore throat. The herb is commonly known as Calyx seu Fructus Physalis, Franchet Groundcherry Fruit, Jǐn Dēnɡ Lóng.

 ✵Common herbal classics defined the herb Calyx seu Fructus Physalis(Franchet Groundcherry Fruit) as the dried persistent calyx or with the fruit of (1). Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii(Mast.)Makino(Physaliphorous. Genus, Solanaceae family, Tubiflorae order.). It is commonly known as Calyx seu Fructus Physalis, Jǐn Dēnɡ Lóng. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii Mast.Makino. (1).Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii(Mast.)Makino.:
 Botanical description: It is a perennial upright herb of Solanaceae acid pulp, plant height is 50~80 cm, the stem is usually not branched above the ground, has a longitudinal edge, the stem node is enlarged, the young stem is covered with dense pilose. Rhizome white, subterraneously branched, nodes with adventitious roots. Leaves alternate, 1~2 leaves per segment, petiole, 1~3 cm long, leaf blade ovate, 6~9 cm long, 5~7 cm wide, apex acuminate, base broadly cuneate, margin unevenly coarsely serrate or undulate, glabrous. Flowers 5 cardinal, solitary in leaf axils, 5~10 per plant. Calyx green, 5-lobed, expanded after flower into egg sac, base slightly concave, 2.5~5 cm long, 2.5~3.5 cm in diameter, thinly leathery, orange or red when mature; Corolla radiant, white, 5 stamens, anthers yellow, 0.3~0.35 cm long, ovary superior, 2 carpels 2 cells, stigma capitate, 1.0~1.1 cm long. Berry within calyx orange-red, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter, single fruit weight 2.5~4.3 g, each fruit contains 210~320 seeds, kidney-shaped, pale yellow, about 0.2 cm in length, 1000 seed weight 1.12g.

 Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii Mast.Makino. Stem leaf: perennial herb, base often prostrate root. Stem ca. 40~80 cm tall, base slightly woody, branches sparsely or unbranched, stem nodes not very swollen, often pilose, especially in young parts densely. Leaf 5~15 cm long and 2~8 cm wide, long ovate to broadly ovate, sometimes long ovate, apex acuminate, base asymmetrical narrow cuneate, next to petiole, margin entire and wavy or coarse teeth, sometimes with a range of triangle big teeth per side, with pilose on both sides, along the veins is dense, the hair above often don't fall off, the veins are short bristles; Petiole 1~3 cm long.

  Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii Mast.Makino. Flowers: pedicels 6~16 mm long, erect when flowering, later curved downwards, densely pilose and fruiting without dropping; Calyx broadly bell-shaped, ca. 6 mm long, densely pilose, calyx teeth triangular, margin hirsute; Corolla radial, white, 15~20 mm in diameter, lobes spreading, broad and short, apex abruptly narrowed into triangular tips, outside pubescent, margin ciliate; Stamens and style are shorter than corolla.

 Fruit: pedicel ca. 2~3 cm long, much pilose; Fruiting calyx ovate, 2.5~4 cm long, 2~3.5 cm in diameter, thinly leathery, reticulate veins prominent, 10 longitudinal ribs, orange or red, pilose, apex closed, base sunken; Berry globose, orange-red, 10~15 mm in diameter, soft and juicy. Seed nephriform, yellowish, ca. 2 mm long. Its flowering period is from May to September, fruiting period is from June to October.

 Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii Mast.Makino. Growth habit: acid pulp for Solanaceae acid pulp is a perennial root herb, often for annual cultivation. Strong adaptability, cold, heat, like a cool, humid climate. Like the sun. Do not choose the soil, especially Asia origin of acid pulp can grow normally in the temperature range of 3~42℃.

 Distribution: The plant mainly grows in the upper reaches area of the Yellow River, the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, southwest area of China. The plant also distributes in other areas of the Asia-Europe continent.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is slightly lantern-shaped, much compressed, 3~4.5 cm long, 2.5~4 cm wide. The surface is orange-red or orange-yellow, with 5 distinct longitudinals and reticulation of veinlets between them. The apex is acuminate, with 5 obvious cracks, the base is slightly flat truncated, the central part has a fruit pedicel. The body is light, pliable, hollow, or has brown-red or orange-red fruit. The fruit is spherical, much compressed, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, the pericarp is shriveled, and contains many seeds. The smell is slight, the calyx is bitter, the fruit is sweet and slightly sour.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. Anticancer activity: The water extract sap of Franchet Groundcherry Fruit has the activity of inhibiting Mouse ascites carcinoma; ②. Bacteriostasic activity: fresh fruit juice can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxify, clearing away the lung-heat and relieve sore throat, reduce phlegm, diuretic and alleviate water retention. It is indicated for sore throat, abscess of throat, hoarse voice, heat phlegm and cough, lung heat and productive cough, hectic fever due to yin and consumptive fever(bone steaming and over-strained fever), dribbling urination and difficulty in urination, dysuria(difficulty in micturition), wet sore. External for the treatment of pemphigus, eczema.

 Administration of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis(Jǐn Dēnɡ Lóng): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis(Jǐn Dēnɡ Lóng)
TCM Books: Internally:5~9 grams.Externally:proper amount,apply stick(CP), Internally: water decoction,4.5~9 grams. Externally: proper amount, mashed and apply stick, or wash with water decoction.(CHMM)

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Jin Deng Long:Franchet Groundcherry Fruit or Calyx seu Fructus Physalis.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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