Introduction of Chi Shao:Red Peony Root or Radix Paeoniae Rubra.
✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Cooling the Blood.
Introduction:Herbs Clearing Heat and Cooling the Blood: an agent or substance herbs that has the effect of eliminating pathological heat from the nutrient and blood systems in cases of warm diseases marked by fever accompanied by delirium, eruptions and bleeding symptoms, and also in other diseases with bleeding due to heat in the blood.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Clearing Heat and Cooling the Blood. are briefly introduced separately:
Radix Paeoniae Rubra(Red Peony Root).
Pin Yin Name: Chì Sháo.
English Name: Red Peony Root.
Latin Name: Radix Paeoniae Rubra.
Property and flavor: slight cold, bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Radix Paeoniae Rubra is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.or Paeonia veitchii Lynch(family Ranunculaceae), used to remove stagnated blood and dispel heat from the blood for the treatment of epidemic febrile diseases with eruptions, pain due to blood stasis, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, traumatic injuries, boils and sores. The herb is commonly known as Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Red Peony Root, Chì Sháo.
Botanical source: The herb Radix Paeoniae Rubra(Red Peony Root) is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.or Paeonia veitchii Lynch, they are plants of the Paeonia genus, the Paeoniaceae family of the Saxifragales order.
(1).Paeonia lactiflora Pall.: Botanical description: The Paeonia lactiflora Pall., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family and Paeonia genus, it is commonly known as "Paeonia lactiflora", "White Peony", or "Shao Yao", perennial herb flower. Its main root is succulent, stout, spindle-shaped and long-barreled, 0.6~3.5 cm thick, light yellow-brown or gray-purple. The buds of the peony herb are mixed buds, clustered on the neck, fleshy, reddish to purple, and yellow, with scales outside. The length and size of buds gradually increase from buds to buds. Clustered on the root neck, fleshy, winter in the ground in the winter, with the temperature rise in the early spring, sprouting unearthed, when the primary water red to light purple, but also yellow, grow out of the ground, the color deepens, generally become dark purple, outside Scales protection. The buds of the peony herb are mixed buds that develop into genital organs - flowers and vegetative organs - stems and leaves. Before budding, the buds grow 2.5~4 cm. The color and shape of buds after they emerge from the ground will also vary from variety to variety. The color ranges from dark purple to yellow-brown. The bud shape can be divided into 3 types: short round type, bamboo shoot type, and pen point type. Short round type, short buds, round blunt ends; bamboo shoot type, longer buds, sharp tips at the ends, bamboo shoots; pen point type, longer buds, tapered ends, shaped like a pen tip. Peony sprouting is one of the most spectacular scenes because it embodies the germination and vitality of life and therefore has a high appreciation value. The peony stems are clustered by the roots and are about 50~110 cm tall. The herbs are cylindrical at the base of the stems. The upper ends are more angular, some are twisted, some are straight, and the sunny part is mostly purple. The stem is clustered by roots and is about 50~110 cm tall. The herbs are cylindrical at the base of the stem. The upper ends are angular, some are twisted, and some are straight. The sunny part is mostly purple. The leaves of the peony herb are two to three pinnate leaves, 20~24 cm long. The leaflets are oval, narrowly ovate, needle-shaped, etc. The leaves are long and pointed. The entire microwave is used. The leaves are yellow-green and green. And dark green, etc., the back of the leaves are pinkish green, hairy or hairless. The lower part of the pinnate compound leaves, which is composed of three leaflets at the end of the leaf, and one leaf on both sides. Each leaf on both sides is usually composed of four leaflets. Leaves, the end of the three leaflets unchanged, the number of small leaves on both sides began to decrease, from the original four gradually reduced to three, two or one, or even disappear, when disappeared, the end is only three leaflets, This time it is called three pinnate compound leaves, the upper leaves are single leaves. Leaf length 20~24 cm, leaflets are elliptic, narrowly ovate, needle-shaped, etc., leaf tip long and pointed, whole microwave, leaf margin densely dense white bone fine teeth, leaves with yellow-green, green and dark green Etc., The back of the leaf is pinkish green, hairy or glabrous. The leaves of the peony herb also have ornamental value. The “green dish dragon” in the “red light sparkling green dish dragon” is the praise of the leaf, and therefore it can also be used as a foliage plant.
There are several kinds of shapes such as round peach, flat round peach, oblate peach, pointed round peach, long round peach, pointed peach, pointed peach, long pointed peach and almond. 5 external rims, leaf-shaped, lanceolate, green, reduced in order from bottom to top; internal ridges 3 (not including variants), green or yellow-green, sometimes with yellow and white stripes or purple stripes, inverted ovate, broadly ovate, round, oval or irregular shape.
The flowers of the peony herb are generally opened at the top of the stem or at the tip of the leafhopper. There are also some rare species. They are actually 2 flowers or 3 flowers. The flowers are large and the diameter can reach 10~20 cm. The original flower and the outer ring sequin 5 Green, 5~10 petals, white or pink; Most stamens, 4~5 carpels, glabrous; colors are white, yellow, green, red, purple, purple, black, mixed colors and many others. Usually grow alone at the top of the stem or near the tip of the leafhopper, there are also some rare species, which are 2 flowers or 3 flowers. Native flowers white, flower path 8~11 cm, 5~13 petals, obovate, stamens numerous, filaments yellow, disk shallow cup, wrapped carpel base, apically rounded, 3~5 carpel hairless or hairy, The garden has a variety of flowers, including white, pink, red, purple, yellow, green, black, and polychromatic colors. The flower diameter ranges from 10 ~ 30 centimeters. The number of petals is up to hundreds, and some species even have 880. Variety of flowers. It is flowering from May to June and fruiting from August.
The fruit of peony, 2-8 pieces are free, spindle-shaped, oval, bottle-shaped, smooth, with small tips. Peony seeds, black or dark brown. Each has 1~5 capsules. Seeds are round, oblong or pointed round. The root consists of 3 parts: root neck, root tuber, and fibrous root. The root neck (distinguished from the "root", the root neck is the root, the root is the stem) is the uppermost part of the root, the color is darker, and the buds are born; the root of the tuber is produced from below the root neck, and is fleshy, stout, spindle-shaped or long Cylindrical, 0.6~3.5 cm thick, light yellowish-brown or gray-purple appearance, white inside, rich in nutrients, tuberous roots generally do not direct buds, but after the break can sprout smaller buds, so the autumn harvest more than 5 cm of root can also reproduce; The fibrous roots are mainly produced from the roots of the roots and are the main organs that absorb water and nutrients, and can gradually evolve into tuberous roots. The roots of peony are different in appearance and shape, and they can generally be divided into three types: rough roots, slope roots, and even roots. Thick root type, the root is sparse, thick and straight; slope root type, the root extends to the surrounding, uneven thickness; even root type, suitable for root density, uniform thickness and so on. Root can be used as medicine.
Characters of herbs: The herb is cylindrical, slightly curved, 5~40 cm long, 0.5~3 cm in diameter. The surface is tan, coarse, have longitudinal furrows, and have fibrous root mark and transverse protruding dermatome, some outer skin is easy to fall off. The texture is hard and brittle, easy to break, the fracture surface is pinkish white or pink section, skin part is narrow, wood radiating texture is obvious, some has cracks. The smell is slightly fragrant and the taste is slightly bitter and sour.
Pharmacological actions: The herb at 0.7~3.3 mg dosage can significantly enhance the synthesis of hepatocyte DNA, can significantly promote the infiltration of 3H-thymine nucleotide into hepatocytes. Injection or Paeoniflorin can directly dilate the coronary artery and have a protective effect on acute myocardial ischemia. The decoction, paeoniflorin can resist platelet aggregation, antithrombotic formation. Paeoniflorin has weak anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic, sedative, antipyretic and anticonvulsant effects, anti-ulcer and antihypertensive effects, and can resist smooth muscle spasm caused by acetylcholine.
Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and cool blood, dissipate stasis, and relieve pain. It is indicated for febrile virulent maculae, hematemesis and epistaxis, discharging fresh blood stool, red eyes and swelling pain in the eye, depression of the liver and pain in hypochondria, menischesis and dysmenorrhea, abdominal mass and abdominal pain, injury from falling down, hernia and abdominal mass, stagnation and stasis, carbuncle swelling and abscess.
Administration of Radix Paeoniae Rubra(Chì Sháo):
Administration Guide of Radix Paeoniae Rubra(Chì Sháo)
Internally:6~12 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill,powder(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 4~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).
(2).Paconia lactiflora Pall.var.trichocarpa(Bunge) Stern.: Botanical description: The Paconia lactiflora Pall.var.trichocarpa(Bunge) Stern., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family and Paeonia genus, it is commonly known as "Hairy Fruit Peony", "Mao Guo Shao Yao", perennial. The roots are thick and the branches are dark brown. Stems 40~70 cm tall, glabrous. The lower cauline leaves are two to three compound leaves, the upper stem leaves are three compound leaves; leaflets narrowly ovate, elliptic or lanceolate, apex acuminate, base cuneate or oblique, margin with white bone fineness Teeth, glabrous on both surfaces, abaxially sparsely pubescent along veins. Flowers a few, raw stems and leaf axils, sometimes only the top one open, and near the top leaf buds are not well-developed flower buds, diameter 8~11.5 cm; 4~5 sepals, lanceolate, sizes; 4 sepals, broadly ovate or suborbicular, 1~1.5 cm long, 1~1.7 cm wide; 9~13 petals, obovate, 3.5~6 cm long, 1.5~4.5 cm wide, white, sometimes dark purple at base; Filament length 0.7~1.2 cm, yellow; disk shallow cup, wrapped carpel base, apical lobe blunt; 2~5 carpels, glabrous. The dragonfly is 2.5~3 cm long and 1.2~1.5 cm in diameter, with a beak at the top. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting in August.
The main difference of this species from the Paeonia lactiflora Pall is: the carpels and young fruits are densely pilose, and the mature pods are sparsely pilose.
1.Introduction of Chi Shao:Red Peony Root or Radix Paeoniae Rubra.
2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).