Introduction of Mu Dan Pi:Tree Peony Bark or Cortex Moutan.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Cooling the Blood.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction:Herbs Clearing Heat and Cooling the Blood: an agent or substance herbs that has the effect of eliminating pathological heat from the nutrient and blood systems in cases of warm diseases marked by fever accompanied by delirium, eruptions and bleeding symptoms, and also in other diseases with bleeding due to heat in the blood.

 
Cortex Moutan(Tree Peony Bark).

Tree Peony Bark Pin Yin Name: Mǔ Dān Pí.
 English Name: Tree Peony Bark.
 Latin Name: Cortex Moutan.
 Property and flavor: slight cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Cortex Moutan is the dried root-bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.(family Ranunculaceae), used (1).to clear heat and cool the blood for the treatment of febrile diseases with eruptions and bleeding, and (2).to activate blood and eliminate stasis for treating amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, traumatic injuries, boils, sores and appendicitis. The herb is commonly known as Cortex Moutan, Tree Peony Bark, Mǔ Dān Pí.

 Botanical source: The herb Cortex Moutan(Tree Peony Bark) is the dried root-bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., it is a plant of the Paeonia genus, the Paeoniaceae family of the Saxifragales order.

 Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. (1).Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.:
 Botanical description: The Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., is a plant of the Ranunculaceae family and Paeonia genus, it is commonly known as "Paeonia suffruticosa", "Tree Poeny", "Mu Dan", "Shu Gu", "Lu Jiu", "Mu Shao Yao", "Luo Yang Hua", etc. it is a perennial deciduous shrub that grows slowly, has a small plant type, and the plant height is mostly between 0.5~2 meters. The root is thick, long, and the center is lignified. The length is generally 0.5~0.8 meters, and a few root lengths are up to 2 meters; The color of the root bark and root meat varies from variety to species; the branches are erect and brittle, round and round, and shrubbery from several branches growing from the rhizomes. The branches are smooth, vegetation, yellow-brown, often cracking and flaking; leaves alternate, The leaves are usually two to three compound leaves. The upper part of the branches is usually single leaves. The small leaves have lanceolate, oval, elliptic, etc. The terminal leaflets often have 2 to 3 cracks. The leaves are dark green or yellow-green. Gray-green, smooth or hairy; total petiole length 8~20 cm, surface groove; flower single born in the year the top of the tree, both sexes, flowers large color Yan, beautiful shape, flower diameter 10~30 cm; flower color White, yellow, pink, red, purple, purple, purple (black), snowy (pink blue), green, and multi-colored colors; male pistils often have petalization, the natural increase of petals and the level of male and female pistil It is related to variety, cultivation environment condition, growth period, etc.; most of the stamens of normal flower, seed force, Seed maturity is also high, the petals of the pistil are severely flowered, the seeds are less or not seeded, the flower stamens are completely free, the carpels are generally 5, there are 8 rare, each has a bottle-shaped ovary, Marginal placenta, Most ovules, Pleurotus ostreatus, 7 to 13 seeds per fruit kernal, seeds are round, yellow when mature, dark brown when old, mature seeds 0.6~0.9 cm in diameter, Thousand-grain weight is about 400g.

 The Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., is a deciduous shrub. Stems up to 2 meters; branches short and thick. The leaves are usually two to three compound leaves, occasionally the leaves of the proximal branches are 3 leaflets; the terminal leaflets are broadly ovate, 7~8 cm long, 5.5~7 cm wide, 3 cracked to the middle, the lobes do not split or 2~3 lobed, green surface, glabrous, abaxially pale green, sometimes with white powder, sparsely pubescent or subglabrous along leaf veins, petiole 1.2~3 cm long; lateral leaflets narrowly ovate or oblong-ovate, Length 4.5~6.5 cm, width 2.5~4 cm, ranging from 2 to 3 lobed or undivided, subsessile; petiole length 5~11 cm, and leaf shafts are glabrous.

 Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. Flowers simple solitary shoots, 10~17 cm in diam.; pedicels 4~6 cm long; 5 sepals, oblong, variable; 5 sepals, green, broadly ovate, unequal in size; 5 petals, or double Rosy, reddish purple, pink to white, usually very variable, obovate, 5~8 cm long, 4.2~6 cm wide, irregularly undulate at top; stamens long 1~1.7 cm, filaments purple, pink Color, upper white, ca. 1.3 cm, anthers oblong, 4 mm long; discs leathery, cup-shaped, purplish red, with several sharp teeth or lobes on top, completely covering carpels, cracking when carpels mature; skin 5, thinner, densely pilose. Dragonfly oblong, dense tan bristles. It is flowering in May, fruiting in June.

 After the Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., is changed from a wild species, it is continuously bred and cultivated due to changes in environmental conditions and artificially. Except for flower color, flower type, and flowering date, there is variability in the morning and evening, as well as the shape of the plant, the length of the root, the thickness, and the color and shape of the leaves. Other aspects have also been mutated.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and humid climate, resistant to cold and drought, afraid of floods, afraid of high temperature, avoid strong light. It prefers upper deep, well-drained, fertile loose sandy loam or silty loam. Saline-alkali soil and clay soil are not suitable for cultivation. It is forbidden to plant continuously, better be cultivated every 3-5 years.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is tubular or semi-tubular, with longitudinally split cracks, slightly inward curling or opening, 5~20 cm in length, 0.5~1.2 cm in diameter and 0.1~0.4 cm in thickness. The outer surface is taupe or tawny, there are many cross long pitot and fine root mark, the region where cork falls off is pink. The inner surface is grayish yellow or light brown, with obvious fine longitudinal grain, often see shining crystal. The texture is hard and brittle, easy to break, the fracture surface is flat, light pink, powdery. The herb smells fragrant, slightly bitter taste and puckery.

 Pharmacological actions: The herb decoction has a strong inhibitory effect on subtilis, Escherichia coli, typhoid bacillus, etc. The Cortex Moutan can significantly reduce cardiac output; Slightly reduces the oxygen consumption of the myocardium. Paeoniflorin and paeonol have antiplatelet aggregation effect. Paeonol can inhibit the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in experimental animals, and can inhibit mast cell degranulation and anti-allergic reaction. Decoction of tree peony bark and Paeonol have antihypertensive effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: The herb can clear heat and cool blood, activate blood circulation and dissipate stasis, indicated for heat entering into blood phase due to fibrile or warm disease, hematemesis, epistaxis, heat hidden in Yin phase and fever in later stage of fever, etc.

 Administration of Cortex Moutan(Mǔ Dān Pí): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Cortex Moutan(Mǔ Dān Pí)
TCM Books: Internally:6~12 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill,powder(DCTM),Internally: water decoction, 6~9 grams, or prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Mu Dan Pi:Tree Peony Bark or Cortex Moutan.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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