✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Astringents and Hemostatics Herbs.
Introduction:Astringents and Hemostatics Herbs:also known as discharge-arresting herbs, an agent or substance that arrests discharges such as sweat, diarrhea, urine, blood, leukorrhea and semen.
✵Till the date March 19th, 2020, there are Totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species,  kinds of related animals species,  kinds of related minerals,  kind of related inorganic substance, are recorded in this category. These Astringents and Hemostatics Herbs. are briefly introduced separately:
Semen Nelumbinis(Lotus Seed).
Brief Introduction: The Herb Semen Nelumbinis is the dried ripe seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.(family Nymphaeaceae), used as an astringent for the treatment of chronic diarrhea, spontaneous emission, and luekorrhagia. The herb is commonly known as Semen Nelumbinis, Lotus Seed, Lián Zǐ.
✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Semen Nelumbinis(Lian Zi) as the fruit or seed of the Nymphaeaceae family plant species (1).Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.It is a plant of the Nelumbo Gaertn genus, the Nelumbonaceae family of the Proteales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:
(1).Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.: The Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., is a plant of the Nymphaeaceae family and Nelumbo genus, it is commonly known as "Nelumbo nucifera", or "Lián", the flower is known as Lián Huā, or the Lotus flower. Perennial aquatic plants. Rhizomes are mostly grown in water sediments. Leaf-shaped shield round, dark green surface, waxy white powder, gray-green back, full and wavy. Petiole cylindrical, dense barbed. Flowers are solitary on the top of the pedicel and above the high water surface. They are single, double, double and heavy; flowers vary in white, pink, crimson, lavender, or inter-color; stamens; pistil Isolated, buried in an inverted cone-shaped spongy torus, the receptacle surface with a majority of scattered honeycomb holes, gradually expanded after fertilization as a lotus, each hole in a small nut (seed). The flowering season starts from June to September and closes every morning. The fruit ripening period is from September to October. There are many lotus cultivars, which can be divided into three major systems: lotus, lotus, and lotus, depending on the use.
The rhizomes of the lotus are planted on the mud at the bottom of the pond or river, while the lotus leaves rise to the surface. A few centimeters of flower stems on the surface of the water grow flowers. The lotus generally grows to 150 cm in height and extends horizontally to 3 meters. The lotus leaf is up to 60 cm in diameter. The eye-catching lotus has a diameter of up to 20 cm. There are many cultivars for lotus, ranging from snow-white to yellow to pink.
Lotus can be bred with seeds or rhizomes. In particular, lotus seed seeds can survive for thousands of years. Some scientists have cultivated some thousand-year-old lotus seeds, and the lotus that has been produced is still alive. The two ancient lotus seeds found in the Yangshao cultural site have a history of more than 3,000 years, but they are too precious to be cultivated.
Ecological environment: The Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., grows in pond and rivers, lakes, etc. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China provinces from south to north where there is water and is commonly cultivated in water gardens. This species also distributed in southeast Asia.
The Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., like relatively stable and calm water, avoiding fluctuations and disparities and large waves. The water depth should not exceed 1.5 meters. The optimum temperature of stems and leaves in the growing season is 25-30 °C. It is required to have sufficient sunshine and it is not appropriate to cultivate indoors for long periods. The soil is preferably made of organic-rich clay loam. Lotus seeds have a long lifespan, and the millennium ancient lotus seeds can still sprout new strains. Lotus breeding more commonly used in the ramets can also be sown. Should be carried out after warming in the spring. The main diseases of the lotus are rot disease, leaf spot disease, etc. The insect pests include aphids and scarabs.
Building a pond with lotus plants and building bridges and bridges along the water constitutes a scenic view of the lotus. It is a traditional method of Chinese gardens. Scenic spots are widely used throughout the country. It also applies to garden water, purified water, or potted plants. The lotus root and lotus seeds are rich in nutrients. Raw and cooked foods are suitable. Lotus root stems can be processed into wolfberry powder, candied fruit and so on. Lotus seeds have a soothing effect, often used as a soup or candied fruit, to nourish the Chinese people. Lotus petals and young leaves can be eaten. All parts of lotus can be used as medicine.
Trait identification:This herb is slightly oval or spherical, 1.2~1.8 cm long, 0.8~1.4 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, with fine longitudinal lines and wider veins. One end center shows papillary protuberant, dark brown, tear more, its periphery is slightly sunken. The hard, thin seed coat, not easy to peel. 2 cotyledons, yellow-white, hypertrophic, interstitial, with green lotus seed heart. No odor, sweet taste, slightly astringent; The Embryo nelumbinis tastes bitter.
Stamen Nelumbinis(Lotus Stamen).
Brief Introduction: The Herb Stamen Nelumbinis is the dried stamen of Lotus, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.(family Nymphaeaceae), used as an astringent to consolidate kidney Qi for the treatment of seminal emission and leukorrhagia. The herb is commonly known as Lián Xū.
✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Stamen Nelumbinis(Lotus Stamen) as the dried stamen of Lotus, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. The Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn is a plant of the Nelumbo Gaertn genus, the Nelumbonaceae family of the Proteales order. This commonly used species was introduced in last entry "Semen Nelumbinis(Lotus Seed)".
Trait identification: Dry stamens are linear, anthers 1~1.5 cm long, about 0.5 mm in diameter, most of the torsion is spiral, yellow or light brown-yellow, 2-loculus, longitudinal fissure, with most yellow pollen. Filaments are filamentous and slightly flat, slightly curved, 1~1.6 cm long, yellowish-brown or tan. Light. Smells slightly sweet, taste slightly astringent. The herb which is dry, complete, color pale yellow, soft quality is better.