✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Astringents and Hemostatics Herbs.
Introduction:Astringents and Hemostatics Herbs:also known as discharge-arresting herbs, an agent or substance that arrests discharges such as sweat, diarrhea, urine, blood, leukorrhea and semen.
✵Till the date March 19th, 2020, there are Totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species,  kinds of related animals species,  kinds of related minerals,  kind of related inorganic substance, are recorded in this category. These Astringents and Hemostatics Herbs. are briefly introduced separately:
Concha Arcae(Arc Shell).
Brief Introduction: The Herb Concha Arcae is the shell of Arca subcrenata Lischke, Arca granosa L., or Arca inflata Reeve(family Arcidae), used to eliminate phlegm and soften hard lumps for treating scrofula and goiter. The herb is commonly known as Concha Arcae, Arc Shell, Wǎ Lénɡ Zǐ.
✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Concha Arcae(Arc Shell) as the shell of the species (1). Arca subcrenata Lischke., (2). Arca granosa Linnaeus., (3). Arca inflata Reeve. They are species of the Scapharca genus, the Arcidae family of the Taxodonta order. These 3 commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Arca subcrenata Lischke.: It is commonly known as Scapharca subcrenata, or Máo Hān, Máo Gé, Xiě Bàng, a species of the Scapharca genus, the Arcidae family of the Taxodonta order. The shell is oblong and ovoid, solid and thick, the shell length is about 54 mm, the height is about 46 mm, the two shells are extremely expanded, the width is 3/4-4/5, the right shell is slightly smaller than the left shell, the two ends of the dorsal side are slightly angular, the top of the shell is slightly forward, the distance between the top of the two shells is medium. The shell surface radiating rib 30-35, rib convex more dense, small square nodules, more obvious on the left shell. The shell surface is covered with a tan fuzzy-like shell skin, the skin is often easy to wear off, making the shell surface often white. The inner surface of the shell is white or grayish-yellow, and the edges have teeth and grooves corresponding to the radial ribs of the shell. Hinge part straight, hinge teeth about 50, the middle small and dense; The sides are large and sparsely spaced. The anterior obturator marks were slightly horseshoe-shaped and the posterior obturator marks were oval.
Ecological environment: It lives in the intertidal zone to the depth of 4~20 meters sediment seabed, prefer slightly freshwater inflow near the estuary. Marine economic shellfish, distributed in the western Pacific Northeast Asia, the coast of China. In China, it is distributed from the Yalu River in the north to Guangxi in the south. Laizhou Bay, Bohai bay, Liaodong bay, Haizhou bay, and other shallow-water resources are particularly rich. Edible shellfish with higher vitamin B12 content.
Trait identification: The shell is short and broad, 2~4.5 cm long, 1.5~4 cm wide, radiating 30 to 34 ribs, with nodules on the ribs, and covered by a hairy shell, about 50 hinge teeth.
(2).Arca granosa Linnaeus.: It is commonly known as Ní Hān, a species of the Anadara genus, the Arcidae family of the Taxodonta order. Shell oval, very thick, shell length about 43 mm, 36 mm high about, the two shells are quite expansive, the width is slightly less than the height. The distance between the top of the two shells is relatively far, the shell surface radiating rib is developed, a total of 18~21, the rib has a very significant intermittent granular nodules, the nodules in the shell edge part is not very obvious, the inside of the shell is gray, the edge has a deep groove corresponding to the shell surface radiating rib. Hinge part straight, hinge teeth about 40. The muscle trace of anterior obturator shell was small and triangular. Posterior obturator shell marks large, nearly square. Heme is contained in blood, show red, because this is called blood cockles.
Ecological environment: It lives in the soft mud beach in the middle and lower part of the humid zone, and the submersible mud is about 70 mm deep. Arca granosa is widely distributed in the western Pacific Ocean and lives in the soft mudflats in the intertidal zone of the inner bay. The spawning season is from August to October. Besides, it is cultured artificially in Hebei, Zhejiang, Guangdong of China, the yield is quite abundant. The yield of Arca granosa in the world is mainly produced in the coastal countries of Southeast Asia.
The Arca granosa Linnaeus prefers to live on the soft mud mudflats near the inner bay and estuary where freshwater is injected, and the number of Arca granosa Linnaeus is the most at the junction of the middle tide area and the low tide area, where it is buried. There is no water pipe, only the rear edge of the shell forms water holes on the surface of the beach and communicates with the outside world. The applicable salinity range is 10~28.8, and the water temperature is 0~35℃. The Arca granosa is a filter-feeding shellfish which feeds on diatoms and organic debris. Hermaphroditic, reproductive season is from July to September in general.
Trait identification:The shell is small, 2~4.5 cm long, 1.5~4 cm wide, radiating ribs 18-20, with intermittent granular projections. About 40 hinge teeth.
(3).Arca inflata Reeve.: It is commonly known as Arca inflata, Scapharca broughtonii, Kuí Hān, Dà Máo Gé, a species of the Anadara genus, the Arcidae family of the Taxodonta order. The shell is obliquely ovoid, firm and thick. The general shell is 80~104 mm long, 62~85 mm high, and the large one is up to 122 mm long and 102 mm high. The two shells are clasped, the left shell slightly larger than the right, extremely swollen, the top of the shell protruding, curving inward, slightly exceeding the ligament surface. Ligament fusiform, with thick skin of dark brown horny. The two sides of the back were slightly obtuse and the leading edge of the shell and skin were round. The trailing edge extends in a truncated shape. Radiating rib width, smooth and neat, no obvious nodules, about 42~48, more common in 43~44, obvious growth chakra, shell surface white. The inner surface of the shell is white, the hinge part is straight, the hinge teeth are 60~70, the middle part is small and upright, the two ends are gradually large and inclined. Obturator muscle is good, the anterior scar is small, ovate; Hind mark is big show pear shape, coat mark is apparent, gill is yellow-red. The shell margin is thick with dentate projections corresponding to the radial rib groove.
Ecological environment: It lives in the subtidal zone 5 meters to 10~30 meters deep mud or sediment seabed, the intertidal zone between the rock seam. The coastal areas of Dalian and Dandong in the north of the yellow sea are the main production areas in China.
Trait identification: The shell is oblique oval, left and right shells are the same shape, the left shell slightly larger than the right shell. It is about 8 cm long and 6 cm wide. Abaxially raised, with 42~48 straight lines(radiating ribs) such as ridges, radiating from the top to the surrounding radiating lines are distinct, from taupe and white, without obvious nodules, covered with fine brown hairs. The inner surface of the shell is milky white, smooth, and the upper edge of the shell has a depression corresponding to the rib, forming prominent hinge tooth of about 70. Hard, can be smashed, white section. No smell, light taste.
Concha Arcae Usta(Calcined Arc Shell).
Brief Introduction: The Herb Concha Arcae Usta is the calcined shell of Arca subcrenata Lischke, Arca granosa L. or Arca inflata Reeve(family Arcidae), used as an antacid agent for the treatment of acid regurgitation. It is commonly known as Concha Arcae Usta, Calcined Arc Shell, Duàn Wǎ Lénɡ.
✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Concha Arcae Usta(Calcined Arc Shell) as the calcined shell of the species (1). Arca subcrenata Lischke.,(2). Arca granosa Linnaeus.,(3).Arca inflata Reeve. They are introduced in the last entry "Concha Arcae(Arc Shell)".