✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Antitussives Herbs.
Introduction: Antitussives herbs: an agent or substance herbs that stops coughing.
Brief Introduction: The herb Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae is the dried bulb of Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don,Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia, Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim. Or Fritillaria delavayi Franchi.(family Liliaceae), used (1).to clear heat, resolve phlegm, moisten the lung for relieving dry cough due to lung heat and chronic cough with bloody sputum in cases of phthisis, and (2).to dissipate nodulation for treating boils, sores, mastitis, and lung abscess.
✵The herb Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb) is the dried bulb of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don, Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia, Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim. Or Fritillaria delavayi Franchi., they are plants of Fritillaria L. genus, the Liliaceae family of the Liliales order. It is also known as Unibract Fritillary Bulb, Bulb of Unibract Fritillary, Bulb of Tendrilleaf Fritillary, Bulb of Przewalsk Fritillary, Bulb of Delavay Fritillary or Chuān Bèi Mǔ.
Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb) as the dried bulb of:(1). Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don or (2). Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia., (3). Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim., (4). Fritillaria delavayi Franch., (5).Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don var. Ecirrhosa Franch. These 5 commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don.: It is also known as Chuan Bèi Mǔ, or Curled-Leaf Fritillary Bulb. It is a perennial herb with great morphological changes. Bulbs ovoid, composed of 2 scales, leaves usually opposite, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, occasionally scattered or whorled in middle; Leaf blade striate to striate lanceolate, apex slightly curly or uncurly. Flowers solitary stem apex, purple to yellowish-green, usually with small squares, few with spots or stripes; Each flower has 3 leaflike bracts, narrow, 2~4 mm wide; 6 tepals, 3~4 cm long, 3 outers, 1~1.4 cm wide, 3 inner, subobovate or ellipsoid, up to 1.8 cm wide. Nectary fossae distinctly protruding abaxially; Stamens are about 3/5 of tepals long, anthers subbasal, filaments with papillae. Stigma segment length 3~5 mm. Capsule ribs with narrow wings 1~1.5 mm wide. Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting period is from August to October.
Ecological environment: grows under thickets, grasslands, rivers, valleys, and other wetlands or rock crevices. Curly leaf fritillaria is distributed in west-south area of China, and other places.
(2).Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia.: It is also known as An Zi Bèi Mǔ, or Dark Purple Fritillary Bulb. It is perennial herbs, 15~25 cm high. Bulb globose or conical, consisting of 2 scales, 6~8 mm in diameter. Stem erect, simple, glabrous. Leaves 1~2 pairs opposite below, 1~2 scattered or opposite above, sessile, strip or strip lanceolate, 3.6~6.5 cm long; 3~7 mm wide, apex acute, not curly. Flowers solitary on top of the stem, dark yellow, with small yellow-brown squares; 1 leaf bracts, apex not curly; 6 tepals, 2 rounds, 2.5~2.7 cm long, 3 obovate-oblong inside, about 1 cm wide, and 3 nearly oblong outside, about 6 mm wide. Nectary fossa slightly protruding or not prominent; 6 stamens, about half as long as perianth, anthers subbasal, filaments with or without papillae; Stigma 3-lobed, lobes short and spreading, 0.5~1 mm long. Capsule oblong, 1~1.5 cm long, 1~1.2 cm wide, with 6 ribs, the wings on the ribs very narrow, about 1 mm wide. It is flowering in June, and fruiting in August.
Ecological environment: the Dark Purple fritillaria grow on the grassland between 3,200-4,500 meters above sea level. Distributed in southwest and westnorth area of China.
(3).Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim.: It is also known as Gan Su Bèi Mǔ, or Gan Su Fritillary Bulb. Perennial herb, 20~40 cm high. Bulb conical, consisting of 2 scales, 6~13 mm in diameter. Leaves usually the lowest 2 opposite, upper 2~3 scattered; Leaf blade striate, 3~7 cm long, 3~4 mm wide, apex usually not curly. Single terminal, rare 2 flowers, pale yellow, with black-purple spots; 1 leaf bracts, apex slightly curly or uncurly; Perianth 2~3 cm long, 3 pieces 6~7 mm wide, nectary fossa is not obvious. Stamens are about half the length of the perianth. Filaments with papillae; Stigma segment length less than 1 mm. Capsule ribs with narrow wings ca. 1 mm wide. It is flowering from June to July, fruiting in August.
Ecological environment: The Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim grows in shrub or grassland at an altitude of 2,800 to 4,400 meters. The Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim is distributed in province Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan of China.
(4).Fritillaria delavayi Franch.: It is also known as Suo Sha Bèi Mǔ. It is a perennial herb, 17~35 cm high. Bulbs oblong ovoid, consisting of 2~3 scales, 1~2 cm in diameter. Leaves alternate, 3~5 (including leaflike bracts) occurring more closely in the middle or upper part of the plant; Leaf blade narrowly ovate to ovate-elliptic, 2~7 cm long, 1~3 cm wide, apex not curly. Single terminal, broadly bell-shaped, slightly pendulous, pale yellow, with reddish-brown spots or small squares; The perianth was 3.2~4.5 cm long and 1.2~1.5 cm wide, and the inner three pieces were slightly longer and wider than the outer three pieces. Stamens are about half as long as perianth, filaments do not have papillae; Stigma segment length is about 1 mm. The wings on the capsule ribs are about 1 mm wide, and the persistent perianth often more or less envelops the capsule. It is flowering from June to July, fruiting from August to September.
Ecological environment: The Fritillaria delavayi Franch grows in the crevices of rocks on the flowing sand beach at an altitude of 3,800~4,700 meters. They are distributed in Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Xizang of China.
(5).Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don var. ecirrhosa Franch.: It is also known as Kang Ding Bèi Mǔ, or Kang Ding Fritillary Bulb. Similar to Curled-Leaf Fritillary Bulb, but the plants and bulbs are often larger. Leaves in addition to the bottom 1~2 pairs for the opposite, most of the rest for scattered, apex does not curl. 1 foliate bracts, rarely 3. The flower has an apparent purple checkered spot.
Ecological environment: The Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don var. Ecirrhosa Franch grows in area with altitude of 3,500~4,100 meters river forest or grassland. It is distributed in the Kangding area of Sichuan province, China.