Introduction of Ma Dou Ling:Dutchmanspipe Fruit or Fructus Aristolochiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Antiasthmatics Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon04 Introduction: Antiasthmatics: an agent or substance herbs that relieves cough and asthma(or dyspnea), usually by ventilating, clearing or moistening the lung, or directing lung Qi downward, stringing lung Qi or resolving phlegm.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 04 Introduction: The Antiasthmatics herbs are known including:, , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [7] kinds of common TCM herbs, [11] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Antiasthmatics Herbs are briefly introduced separately:

 
Fructus Aristolochiae(Dutchmanspipe Fruit).

Aristolochia contorta Bge Pin Yin Name: Mǎ Dōu Líng.
 English Name: Dutchmanspipe Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Aristolochiae.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Aristolochiae is the dried ripe fruit of Aristolochia contorta Bge. , or Aristolochia debilis Sieb. et Zucc.(family Aristolochiaceae), used to clear the lung and resolve phlegm for relieving cough and dyspnea due to heat in the lung, and also to remove heat from the large intestine for treating hemorrhoids. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Aristolochiae, Dutchmanspipe Fruit, Mǎ Dōu Líng.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Aristolochiae(Dutchmanspipe Fruit) is the dried ripe fruit of the Aristolochia debilis Sieb. et Zucc, it is a plant of the Aristolochia genus, the Aristolochiaceae family of the Aristolochiales order. It is also known as Aristolochia debilis Sieb. et Zucc., Dutchmanspipe Fruit, Mǎ Dōu Líng. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Aristolochia contorta Bge (1).Aristolochia debilis Sieb. et Zucc.:
 Botanical description: Grass vine. The root is cylindrical. The stem is weak, glabrous. Leaves are alternate; Petiole is 1~2 cm long, effeminate; Leaf blade is ovate-triangular, oblong-ovate or halberd, 3~6 cm long, the base is 1.5~3.5 cm wide, apex obtuse or shortly acuminate, base cordate, lobes are rounded on both sides, pendulous or slightly extended; 5~7 basal veins, all levels of veins are evident on both sides. Flowers are solitary or 2 flowers clustered in leaf axils; Pedicels are 1~1.5 cm long; Bracteoles are triangular, easily detached; Perianth is 3-5.5 cm long, the base is bulged globose, narrow into a long tube, tube mouth expanded into a funnel, yellowish-green, mouth purple spots, inside glandular hair; Eaves are extremely short on one side, the other side gradually extended into a tongue; Tongue is ovate-lanceolate, apex obtuse; Anthers adnate near the base of stamen column; Room is cylindrical, 6 edges; Pistil apex 6-lobed, slightly papillary convex, lobes are apex obtuse, extending downward to form undulate ring. The capsule is subglobose, the apex is rounded and concave, with 6 ribs, dehiscent from base to space 6 valves upward at maturity. Pedicels are 2.5~5 cm long. Seeds are flat, obtusely triangular, margin with white membranous broad wings. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting from September to October.

 Aristolochia contorta Bge Ecological environment: The plant grows in valleys, ditches, wet places on roadsides, and thickets on hillsides at an elevation of 200~1,500 meters above sea level. The plant prefers light, slightly shade, sand-like yellow soil, adaptable. The plant mainly distributes in the south of the Yellow River to the south of the Yangtze River.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a cold wet climate, the resistance of cold, drought. It fears to waterlog, avoid sunshine. It is advisable to grow in moist and fertile sandy loam or humus loam.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is oval, 3~7 cm long, and 2~4 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-green, grey-green, or tan, there are 12 longitudinal edges, from which most of the transverse parallel veins are separated. Apex is flat obtuse, base has a slender fruit peduncle. The skin is light and crisp, easily split into 6 petals, and the fruit stem also split into 6. The inner surface of the pericarp is smooth and lustrous with dense lateral veins. The fruit was divided into 6 chambers, with many seeds in each chamber, neatly arranged in flat stacks. Seeds are flat and thin, obtuse triangular or fan-shaped, 6~10 mm long, 8~12 mm wide, winged, pale brown. It smells specific, slightly bitter taste.

 Pharmacological actions: This decoction of the herb has a weak expectorant effect on anesthetized rabbits. It has inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococcus, dysentery bacillus and dermatophytes. Besides, it has contraception, anti-tumor effect, it has a mild and lasting antihypertensive effect and is suitable for early hypertension.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear lung to downbear Qi, stop cough and relieve asthma, clear intestines to eliminate hemorrhoids. It is indicated for lung heat and asthma cough, sputum with blood, intestinal heat and hemorrhoids blood, hemorrhoids swelling pain.

 Administration of Fructus Aristolochiae(Mǎ Dōu Líng): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Cassia Twig(Gui Zhi)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP), Internally:water decoction,1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams)(DCTM), Internally:water decoction,3~9 grams,grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill,powder(CHMM).


 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Ma Dou Ling:Dutchmanspipe Fruit or Fructus Aristolochiae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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