Introduction of Yang Jin Hua:Datura Flower or Flos Daturae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Antiasthmatics Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon04 Introduction: Antiasthmatics: an agent or substance herbs that relieves cough and asthma(or dyspnea), usually by ventilating, clearing or moistening the lung, or directing lung Qi downward, stringing lung Qi or resolving phlegm.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 04 Introduction: The Antiasthmatics herbs are known including:, , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [7] kinds of common TCM herbs, [11] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Antiasthmatics Herbs are briefly introduced separately:

 
Flos Daturae(Datura Flower).

Datura metel Pin Yin Name: Yánɡ Jīn Huā.
 English Name: Datura Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos Daturae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos Daturae is the dried flower of Datura metel L.(family Solanaceae), used to relieve cough, asthma, gastralgia, rheumatalgia, and epilepsy.

 Botanical source: The herb Flos Daturae(Datura Flower) is the dried flower of Datura metel L., it is a plant of the Datura L. genus, the Solanaceae family of the Solanariales order. It is also known as Datura Flower Hairy Datura Flower, Datura Flower or Yánɡ Jīn Huā.

 Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos Daturae(Datura Flower) as the dried flower of:(1). Datura metel L., or (2). Datura innoxia Mill. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Datura metel (1).Datura metel L.:
 Botanical description: The plant is also known as the white flower Datura. Annual herb, it grows up to 30-100 cm tall. The entire plant is nearly glabrous. The stem is erect, cylindrical, base woody, upper branched forklike, green, surface irregularly wrinkled, young branches quad prismatic, purplish, pubescent. Leaves alternate, upper leaves subopposite; Petiole length is 2~5 cm; Leaf blade is broadly ovate, long ovate or heart-shaped, 5~20 cm long, 4~15 cm wide, the apex is acuminate or acute, base asymmetrical, margin with irregular short teeth, or entire and undulate, both surfaces are glabrous or sparsely short, abaxially veins raised. Flowers are solitary in branched or leaf axils; Pedicels are 1 cm long, erect or obtrusive, white pubescent; Calyx is tubular, 4~6 cm long, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, yellowish-green, apex 5-lobed, lobes are triangular, regular or irregular, the apex is apical, posterior calyx tube decapitate from near base, remaining calyx tube is persistent at the base, the fruit is disc-shaped, 2.5~3 cm in diameter, margin not reflexed. Corolla tube is funnelform, 14~20 cm long, cornice 5~7 cm in diameter, lower part becoming smaller, spreading upward and splashed, white, 5-ribbed, 5 lobes, triangular, apex long; 5 stamens, corolla tube grows inside, anthers are linear, flattened, basally inserted; 1 pistil, the ovary is beaded, 2-locules, sparsely spiny, ovules numerous, style filiform, 11~16 cm long, stigma peltate. Capsule fruit is globose or oblate, 3 cm in diameter, sparsely spiny, pale brown when ripe, irregularly 4-lobed. Seeds are numerous, flat, slightly triangular, brown when ripe. Its flowering period is from March to November, fruiting from April to November.

 Datura metel Ecological environment: The plant grows on slopes, grasslands, or near residential areas. The plant mainly distributes in the Yangtze River area and the Zhujiang river area, and southwest area of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant was originally a species of cultivation, now it also grows wild in the village and roadside sandy land. It prefers a warm and humid climate, the seeds begin to germinate at the temperature of 5℃; Plants die when the temperature is lower than 2-3℃. It is advisable to cultivate in sandy loam with sunny, loose, and fertile soil with good drainage. Avoid continuous cropping. Previous plants should not be Solanaceae plants.

 Datura metel Characters of herbs: The south Datura Flower(flower of Datura metel L.) calyx removed, corolla and attached stamens wrinkled into a roll, 9~16 cm long, yellowish-brown. After flattening, the upper part of the corolla is trappate, the apex is 5-lobed, the apex of the lobe is mucronate, there are 3 distinct longitudinal veins below the mucronium, the lobes are slightly concave. 5 stamens, filaments proximally appressed to corolla tube, anthers flattened, 1~1.5 cm long. The quality is fragile, the odor is slightly smelly, the taste is laborious.

 Pharmacological actions: The main active ingredient of Datura metel is scopolamine, which has a significant sedative effect. A general dose can make people feel tired and enter dreamless sleep; It also relieves emotional excitement. Electrophysiological methods showed that scopolamine had inhibitory effects on the ascending activation system of the cerebral cortex and mesencephalic reticular structure, and had better excitatory effects on the respiratory center, anti-halo effects and treatment of Parkinson's disease is stronger than atropine.

 Medicinal efficacy: Stop asthma, dispel the wind, anesthesia and relieve pain, indicated for asthma, rheumatism and pain of numbness, beriberi.

 Administration of Flos Daturae(Yánɡ Jīn Huā): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos Daturae(Yánɡ Jīn Huā)
TCM Books: Internally:0.3~0.6 grams, better prepare to pill, powder, or prepare to cigarette and have a smoke in several times, not over 1.5 grams daily. Externally:proper amount(CP), Internally:water decoction(or infusing in water), 1~1.5 fen(about 0.3~0.45 grams); prepare to powder, 3~5 li(about 0.09~0.15 grams), decocting wine or prepare to cigarette and have a smoke. Externally: wash with water decoction or grinded into a fine powder and apply stick(DCTM), Internally: water decoction, 0.3~0.5 grams, prepared to pill, powder. If prepare to cigarette and have smoke several times daily, the dosage should not be over 0.5 grams. Externally: proper amount, wash with water decoction, or grinded into a fine powder and apply stick(CHMM).


 Datura innoxia Mill. (2).Datura innoxia Mill.:
 Botanical description: The plant is also known as hairy flower Datura. Annual herb, it grows up to 1~2 meters high. There is a stench, the whole plant is covered by white fine glandular hair and pubescent. The stem is stout, erect, cylindrical, base woody, upper more forked branches, grayish-green. Leaves are alternate or subopposite; Leaf blade is broadly ovate, 8~20 cm long, 5~12 cm wide, apex acute, base oblique cordate, entire or microwave, abaxially veins raised. Flowers are large, erect or oblique ascending, 15~20 cm long, 7~8 cm in diameter, corolla white or mauve, with 5 rows; Calyx tube 5 angular, apex 5 lobed, after flower it fractured from near base, persistent part elliptic fruit enlarged and reflexes outwards. Capsule fruit grows on a pendulous stalk, suborbicular, densely flexible needle-like spines and densely pubescent, apex irregularly dehiscent at maturity. Seeds are numerous, reniform, hazel, or tawny. Its flowering period is from May to September, the fruiting period is from June to October.

 Datura innoxia Mill. Ecological environment: It is original for cultivation species, now grows in the village across the road and sandy ground, it is also seen in the wild. The plant mainly distributes in the north, central and east areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The northern Datura Flower(flower of Datura innoxia Mill.) has a calyx. The calyx tube is 4~9 cm long, apex 5 lobed, lobed piece is about 1.5 cm long, the surface is densely hairy. Corolla is 10~18 cm long, apex lobes are triangular, interlopes mucronate. Anthers are 1 cm.

 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Yang Jin Hua:Datura Flower or Flos Daturae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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